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November 27th African State System.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
New College
Thomas Tieku

th November  27 :  African  State  System     Lecture 11: The Formation of the African State System Decolonization • First wave of decolonization was an intellectual revolution. There were demonstrations and publications that made the arguments for decolonization. Libya was the first. Didn’t involve any settler states and they were only seen as places to make money, get people from there to join their army, sell their goods and gain prestige. • Second wave is from the 1960s were most states got independence. Mostly francophone states. There were few settler states except for Kenya and Algeria. There was a mix of arms struggle and intellectual struggles. The arms struggles were mostly in the settler states. • The third wave started from 1975 to 2011(South Sudan). Warfare was the major instruments for the colonization process. There were a large number of settler states. The settlers didn’t want the colonizers to leave. Africans forced the settles for incorporation into the political arrangements. Settlers • The international pressures ended up crippling the development of African states • There was a demystification of the idea of European superiority. The pillars built on myths and legends crumbled. This was influenced by the Second World War were Africans participated and saw Europeans die on the battlefield. Causes of Decolonization • The African intelligence was mostly university degree holders. If you got a degree you were considered a big person. There are 2 types of African intellectuals. o The diaspora African intellectuals. § These were Africans who lived outside of Africa and they saw decolonization as an important mark in the fight against racism, for more civil rights and the respect of Africans. They felt that despite of the achievements they won’t be respected were they were until de colonization. For example W.E.B Bubois. He felt his own fight within the US could only be one with decolonization. The argument that if why are you in superior if you allow for people to colonize you? § They arranged the Pan African Congress. The first was in 1900 and the last was 1945 in Manchester. They were supposed to bring African intellectual together to talk about how to claim right for Africans, how to fight racism and how best to asses the African personality or how to decide how to make people respect Africans as individuals § Some of those people are: W.E.B Bubois; Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican who because of interest in Pan Africanism he moved to the US. He organized the back to the Africa movement. He wanted people to go back to the continent if they so chose. George Padmore was from Trinidad. He was passionate about civil rights. He settles in Soviet Union then France and latter settled in London. He was to coordinator for the European movement. § Without the coordination of these individuals, decolonization would have been more difficult. They helped the African independence leaders o The Residential African Intellectuals § These people attended the last pan African conference. They realized that mass organization and student movements were important. When they can back they joined student unions such as the West African Student Union. The reason the first wave was as such was because of the African intelligence, partially abroad. Some leaders are Kwame Nkrumah; Jomo Kenyatta; Obafemi Awolowo. Ideational Schools • What system should we build now that we have control over their own affairs? This question remains un-answered • There were 2 apposing groups o The Pan Africanists § Casablanca Group or the Thick Pan Africans because they believe the best way to organize Africans was to create 1 single African state. § They thought the United States of Africa could compete with the rest of the world. § They called for one single army, currency, and the development of a indigenous African language. §
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