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NEW150Y1 Lecture Notes - Khoikhoi, San People, Hunter-Gatherer

New College
Course Code
Thomas Tieku

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African Studies Oct 25th 10/25/2011 7:12:00 AM
The peopling of Southern Africa
Last week- West Africa happened to be late settled area
- insecurity as a result of wild animals living and no iron technology cant
overpower animals with no weapons
once west Africa was settled- big political communities emerged such as
GhanaKanem Bornu was similar to the rest, only difference is kingdom was
relatively homogenous- now in Nigeria
Southern Africa
- very unique compared to rest of Africa
- geologically oldest region in Africa
- almost all the different vegetational/ temperal zone can be found in south
- tropical weather condusive for farming
- temperate weather (e.g snow, condusive of grapes/wine)
- also has savannah condusive for cattle rearing
- all the major occupations can be found in Africa
- the only place Europeans settled permanently (similar to what we have
- apart the settlement of Europeans, also Indians brought there as result of
trade most cases as servants or slave
- huge chinese population also trade
- relatively huge population from indonasia, Malaysia etc
- melting pot of culture- classic immigrant society mixed with indigenous
- practiced ethnicity to the extreme--- apartheid (ethnicity instutionalized by
the stateonly part where different ethnic groups separated legally
social, economical etc.
separation most visible between African and whites
separation based on hierachal arrangement of human speices (Europeans on
the top) 1948-1994
- has shaped history of south Africa in fundamental way
- richest parts relatively richer than rest of Africa

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country south Africa has more money/resources than rest of Africa combined
(Excluding northern part)
unequal distribution of wealth
South Africa made up of four distinct group: San, Khoikoi, Bantu and
Europeans lived in Southern Africa
- Europeans think they are African (Dutch, german and british)
- San ppl believed to have inhabited Southern Africa first
Europeans first called the San people ―Bush men‖
- majority of San now live in Zimbabwe
- San live hunter gathering lifestyle so Europeans thought they lived in
bushes or how animals lived
- no centralized system of govt
uniqueness of the Sans has to do with the fact that the Sans never had
permanent households
- never developed huge ethnic settlement (like Empires, )
- lived in bands of fifty ppl
- as result of culture, never developed material culture, however most of the
things they depended on was pottery
most tools made were made out of woods (never developed sophisticated
iron technology
- egalitarian no hierachal division of labour in terms of occupation based
on sex
- a typical San life and even language gradually becoming extinct
- because the dutch succeeded in pushing them out of the savannah because
didn’t have instruments to defend themselves so dutch converted most of
their land into farming life
- lifestyle not condusive to living in thick forest
- so majority forced to adapt lifestyle of dutch or perish
- Sandewe is ethnic group closest to San
- small group can be found in SA, botswanna, south Africa proper
Hatsa is another ethnic group
- San lived around the Kalahari Desert in Modern Botswana
- needed place where there was Savana
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