NEW335H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Heart Rate Variability, Bradypnea, Sleep Spindle

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13 Dec 2017
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Lecture 2
1. What are some physiological changes that are observed in so-alled relaig fors of editatio?
Explain how a meditative state resembles a state of parasympathetic dominance from a physiological
perspective.
Hypometabolic state: decreased oxygen, decreased carbon dioxide elimination, respiration and heart
rate.
Parasympathetic: decrease respiration/ heart rate/ blood pressure/ catecholamines (norephrine)
Increase heart rate variability, galvanic skin resistance
Para & Meditation: decreased heart rate & increased heart rate variability
2. What does EEG stand for? What is the basis of the EEG signal? What does an EEG signal represent (in
units)? How do we analyze EEG printouts? Give examples of EEG frequency ranges and EEG events.
Electroencephalogram
Electrical activity in specific brain regions.
Frequency (number of peaks/s)=> measured in Hz. 1 Hz= 1 cycle/s.
Measures potentials from activated synapses which correlate to neuronal firing.
Aroused/relaxed/ sleepy/ asleep/ deep sleep
Beta (13-30)/ Alpha (7-13)/ Theta (4-7)/ Delta (1-4)
3. There are several states of consciousness which can be discerned using patterns of EEG activity.
Define these states and explain the EEG activity in each. Explain how an experimenter may utilize an EEG
to differentiate meditative states from other states of consciousness.
NREM1- Theta/ NREM2- theta, sleep spindles and K-complexes/ NREM 3/4 (Delta)/ REM (essentialy
awake EEG)
ID the states, as done above and then observe the EEG states while meditating. The difference is that
during mediation there is no cycling between stages of EEG observed.
4. Explain how meditation can be differentiated from simple relaxation using a combination of
physiologic tools besides the EEG.
Difference: Meditation has cognitive/emotional aspects (focus/acceptance)
Reduced level of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine)/ increased galvanic skin resistance/
decreased respiration rate/ lower Oxy consumption and Carbo elimination/ Marked decline in blood
lactate/ decreased vascular resistance/ decreased heart rate.
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