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NFS284 Chapter 14, 15, 16 Lecture Notes

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Nutritional Science
Tom Wolever

NFS284 Chapter 14, 15, 16 – Lifecycle nutrition Slide 4 Weight loss poses potential risk for nutritional deficiency, or may put the fetus at risk. If you start your pregnancy at too high of a weight. Slide 5 Folic acid is needed shortly after conception to ensure the normal development of the fetus. Iron is important as well. Slide 7 If too little weight gain during pregnancy, then higher risk of having a low birth weight baby. If too much weight gain during pregnancy, then higher risk of having a large baby. The birth weight of the baby is linked to what is happening to the mother. We will see later that this gets translated into some genetic processes. Slide 8 The bigger moms at the beginning of pregnancy, then the more likely she is to gain weight. The bigger moms tend to gain more weight than is recommended. There is a correlation between pre- pregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy. The weight gain during pregnancy can increase risk to the fetus. Slide 10 CPNP targets women who are at risk in the community. CPNP is a community-based program where you try to get expecting mothers who are at risk to share and become involved in a community so that they get some education about breastfeeding and prenatal health. This is a good program that has been successful at capturing at least 50-60% of at risk mothers. Slide 11 You are programmed to be very efficient at storing energy and very efficient in terms of not expending more energy than is necessary. This is okay if the environment that you end up in is an environment where food is scarce. However, if you end up in an environment where food is plentiful (e.g., obesogenic environment), you are programmed to be efficient at storing fat and efficient at not expending energy, which makes increasing body weight very easy to acquire. The environment that you experience in utero will influence how you respond to the environment that you start to grow up in. If a fetus is exposed to a poor fetal environment (e.g., mother has not gained enough weight during pregnancy, and baby is born with low birth weight), this is believed to cause the the thrifty genotype or epigenotype. Epigenetics are genetic factors that are unrelated to the sequence of DNA. Our DNA sequence determines the amino acid structure of our protein. Mutation changes in the DNA sequence can affect protein function. If you existed in utero in a poor fetal environment, you are programmed to expend less energy than the normal infant when you are born. Changes in the genotype will affect gene function, which is usually the result of mutations or polymorphisms. Mutations are rare. Polymorphisms are common. Changes related to early programming have to do with epigenetic effects, which is the silencing of genes by methylation of DNA. The DNA molecule has either methyl groups
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