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NFS284 Chapter 14-16 Review Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Nutritional Science
Tom Wolever

Nutrition: Science and Applications Early programming Chapter 14 – Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation - Poor fetal environment (or smoking) low birth weight  thrifty Chapter 15 – Nutrition from infancy to adolescence genotype or epigenotype  adult obesity Chapter 16 – Nutrition and aging o Causes people to expend less energy (e.g., store more energy) o When these people end up in an environment where food is Weight gain during pregnancy scarce, then no weight gain o When these people end up in an environment where food is - Most of the weight gain during pregnancy is lost at birth - Maternal fat is required to fuel lactation plentiful, then weight gain is easy o Maternal fat = 2-5 kg o In utero famine exposure vs. siblings not exposed to famine - Too little or too much weight gain puts baby and mother at risk  ↑ obesity o Too little weight gain = ↓ birth weight  ↑ atherogenic lipid profile o Too much weight gain = ↑ birth weight  ↑ hypertension - Weight loss is not recommended during pregnancy  ↑ coronary heart disease - Weight loss should occur before pregnancy  ↓ glucose tolerance o Siblings born after mother developed diabetes vs. siblings born - Weight gain should be kept to a minimum during pregnancy - Moderate exercise during pregnancy is safe before mother developed diabetes - Pre-pregnancy weight is a predictor of weight gain during pregnancy  ↑ BMI - Many normal and high BMI women are gaining more weight than  ↑ obesity recommended during pregnancy  ↓ glucose tolerance - Many low BMI women are gaining within the recommendations during  ↓ intellectual and psychomotor development pregnancy - Genotype  mutations or polymorphism  changes in DNA sequences  Nutritional needs of pregnancy affects gene function - Epigenotype  DNA methylation  silences gene expression - Additional energy needs of 350-450 kcal in the last two trimesters (e.g., an extra 2 to 3 servings each day) Possible risk factors for adult obesity that may occur in infancy o 1 trimester = 0-13 weeks - ↑ birth weight nd o 2 trimester = 14-26 weeks - ↑ weight gain during the first weeks of life o 3 trimester = 27-40 weeks - ↓ breastfeeding Factors that increase the risk of pregnancy - ↓ sleep duration Maternal factor Maternal risk Fetal risk Assessing infant growth Low BMI Anemia, premature rupture Low birth weight, pre- - Weight and height is measured in percentiles - ↑ percentile = ↑ weight of the membranes, term birth th hemorrhage after delivery o 50 percentile = average weight and height o 85 -97 percentile = overweight High BMI
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