NFS284 Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Nutritional Science
Debbie Gurfinkel

NFS284 Lecture 4 Chapter 2: Nutrition: Guidelines: Applying the Science of Nutrition • 2.3 Canada’s Food Guide: Page by Page: Page 1 o Food-based approach  The purpose of Canada’s Food Guide • 1) To meet the nutrient needs of the individual • 2) To reduce the risk of chronic disease  Canada’s Food Guide: • regularly updated based on the most current nutritional research • the current guide was published in 2007  What are the implications of the size of the arc? • Representative of dietary pattern to consume right combo of food o Canada’s Food Guide: What is the main message of this table?  Good guideline  Much healthier if follow food guideline  Represents fruits and vegetables  Size of arm depends on how much food  Lesser #’s of grains, lesser of milk and meat, most of veggies  Some nutrients strongly linked to specific food groups  Food groups; important b/c no single good group provides all nutrients  Don’t memorize nutrients in table o Page by Page: Page 2  Learn these: • Fruits/ Vegetables: vitamin A, folate, Vitamin C • Grain products: fibre and magnesium • Milk and alternatives: Calcium and Vitamin D • Meat and Alternatives: protein, iron, B12, zinc  Recommended food guide servings from age 2 to adulthood; specific  Don’t memorize the numbers  Fist = 1 cup  Small amounts of meat and alternatives  Recognize small amounts of food o 2.3 Critical Thinking: Canada’s Food Guide: Additional Statements  Question: • An elderly woman requires 7 servings of vegetables and fruits daily. Is she following Canada’s Food Guide if she consumes 3 servings of orange juice and 4 servings of mashed potatoes? (pg 57) • Answer in Appendix J/answer tab o Canada’s Food Guide: Page by Page: Page 3: What is One Food Guide Serving?  Don’t memorize serving sizes o Critical Thinking: Canada’s Food Guide: Additional Statements 9pg 57)  Question: A young woman consumes fortified soy milk instead of cow’s milk. Is she following Canada’s Food Guide, with respect to milk and alternatives?  Answer in Appendix J o Table 2.2  Canada Food Guide servings are very small! o Canada’s Food Guide: Page by Page: Page 3  Oils and Fats • Include a small amount – 30 -45 ml (2 to 3 tbsp) – of unsaturated fat each day. This includes oil used for cooking salad dressings, margarine and mayonnaise • Use vegetable oils such as canola, olive, and soybean • Choose soft margarines that are low in saturated and trans fats • Limited butter, hard margarine, lard, and shortening  Risk of CVD decrease  oils w/ high PUFA, eg. canola oil, soybean oil  Recommended to intake oils  Want to limit saturated fats and increase polyunsaturated fats o Canada’s Food Guide: Page by Page: Page 4: Additional Statements  Eat at least one dark green and one orange vegetable each day  vitamin content: vitamin A, folate (difficult to get from diet)  Choose vegetables and fruit prepared with little or no added fat, sugar or salt  Have vegetables and fruit more often than juice  Make at least half of your grain products whole grain each d ay  dietary fibre and magnesium  Choose grain products that are lower in fat, sugar or salt  Additional actions to make sure eating properly  Eat little added fat, sugar and sodium  Green and orange vegetables  Vit A in form of beta-carotene in orange vegetables  Folate content 9% RDA for 20-year-old male)  % higher for women  Drink skim, 1% or 2% milk each day  Select lower fat milk alternatives  Have meat alternatives such as beans, lentils and tofu often • Reduce saturated fat and other benefits  Eat at least 2 Food Guide Servings of fish each week • Reduced cardiovascular risk  Select lean meat and alternatives prepared with little or no added fat or salt • Lower fat choices  Drink milk or fortified soy beverages  Not just for Calcium, which can be obtained from yogourt; also vit D; all fortified in almond milk, soy milk • An alternative • Can also get it in orange juice  Vit D can be made by sunlight o Canada’s Food Guide: Additional Statements (pg57)  Question: A sedentary young man consumes the appropriate number of servings of foods from all four food groups. Is he following Canada’s Food Guide if he regularly enjoys his food deep-fried or served with creamy sauces? o Canada’s Food Guide: Page by Page: Page 4  Criticism of CFG: should put more emphasis on plant sources of protein  High sources of protein when in double digit  Drink water regularly. It’s a calorie-free way to quench thirst. Dr
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