NFS386 Lecture 1- iNTRODUCTION.docx

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Nutritional Science
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Debbie Gurfinkel

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NFS386 Lecture 1: Introduction Physical structures of food  Amorphous: disordered arrangement of molecules  Crystalline: ordered arrangement  Amorphous and crystalline  Crystalline o Polymers closely packed together, strong association between polymers. o Polymer to polymer hydrogen bonding  Amorphous o Polymers have spaces between them o Polymer to water bonding o Little association between polymers Gel: liquid and continuous network of polymers  Gel: network = polysaccharides + protein  Water penetrates spaces Emulsions: discrete particles dispersed in a continuous phase. (Oil/Water)  Stabilized by emulsifiers  Emulsifiers have polar and non-polar ends  Carry charge  repulsive force  keeps oil separate Free radical formation  Especially near double bonds  Slow reaction catalyzed by light, free metals. Hydrogenation (reduction)  Less saturated  more saturated, oxidatively stable  Cis/trans formation  Trans fat Esterification  Reaction between alcohol and acid  Triacylglycerols (triglycerides): ester of glycerol and fatty acids Interesterification: pattern of fatty acids on glycerol is changed.  Random: more heterogeneous  more likely liquid  Directed: more homogeneous  more solid Maillard/Non-enzymatic browning reactions  Multiple reactions occur between sugar and protein  brown colored compounds  Include
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