Lecture 1 - Introduction To Food Science

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University of Toronto St. George
Nutritional Science
Debbie Gurfinkel

NFS386 Lecture 1 cooking meat toasting bread baking muffins roasting coffee 13 Sept 2011 sugars and proteins react to produce brown compoundssome of these are desirable and improve taste some areStudying food undesirableAgriculture focuses on the production of foodcondensationFood science focuses on improving the qualities which include flavour rearrangement of moleculesappearance and nutritionfragmentation of moleculesNutrition focuses on the physiological effects of foodpolymerization of moleculesWhy is food processed the way it islots of double bondstend to absorb in the visible spectrum and are thus coloured Food science enzymatic reactionsfood biotechnologypolyphenol oxidase turns green tea to black teaalso causes genetic modification and traditional plant breedingapples to brownfood engineering and processingdifferent foods have different levelshow do you design food processing plants for the proper reacts with amino acidsprocessing of foodenzyme is located in one compartment of the cell and the Sensory evaluationproteins are in another one and they need to mix in order to the taste test reactbruising of an apple follows this principle Which is not a food science paperSensory evaluation tests Cthis is a nutrition paper not a food science papertaste panelliststrained to use a specific vocabulary for consistency Quality attributes of food setting up a testtextureaffects our perception of tastecolourappearancewe judge food quality by its appearance Triangle test tastearoma flavourpeople choose tasty food not nutritious food3 digit codes prevent people from being inclined to say rank from 12 nutritional quality3 or so onshelf lifeif your number is greater than 50 its statistically significant safety Food processing jeopardyPhysical structure of food blanchingamorphouscrystalline structuresPasteurizationrefer to the ways molecules are arrangedmilkonly kills pathogenic organisms but isnt sterilized because honey example as water evaporates from honey the glucose the proteins would denaturecomes out of solutiongoes from amorphous to crystallinecommercial sterilizationcrystalline has interactions between glucose and glucosetypically in canned food leaves thermophilic bacteria over so forms white crystalcanned products will eventually get spoiledamorphous honey has glucose and fructose interacting and canningHbonding with water forms liquid honeyaseptic processinggels have both amorphous and crystalline regions Jello pudding high temperature short time HTST or ultra high temperature UHT etcmilk can stay at room temp without going badpolymersunconventiona
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