PCL102H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Hypodermic Needle, Penicillin, Alkaloid

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Way to separate compounds in mixture, based on lipophilicity/hydrophilicity. Some active principles are more lipophilic than others. Modifying extraction techniques to obtain different active principles from plants. Within opium sap is active compound morphine. Discovery: made extraction components basic, new substance precipitated, could be crystallized (purified) in alcohol, called principium somniferum inducing sleep, later called morphine. All plant active principles isolated prior to discovery of morphine were acidic; opium extraction first to be basic. Narcotic principle of opium was a base that formed salts, contains possibly nitrogen. Chemist and 3 friends 100 mg daily of morphine severe poisoning. Advances in drug delivery increased utility of drugs. Morphine has poor bioavailability (if taken orally, not much gets into blood) Discovery of morphine, the first plant alkaloid, changed scientist view of botanical world. Soluble in alcohol unlikely a protein or enzyme, likely a small chemical. Terminally ill cancer patient high fever but otherwise okay.

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