Class Notes (809,203)
Canada (493,578)
Pharmacology (260)
PCL102H1 (157)

35b.Schizophrenia 4b - Carlson Reconsidered..docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Mac Burnham

35b.Schizophrenia4b. Carlson Reconsidered Carlson’s chapter on schizophrenia isn’t very clear. I’ve tried to pin down what he thinks on four questions. (Query: What does Dr. Ramsay think on these points?) 1. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA? 1) positive: obsessions, hallucinations, thought disorder #1 2) negative: withdrawal, anhedonia, etc. 3) cognitive: related to and formerly classed with negative = thought disorder #2 Comment: He really is talking about 2 different sorts of thought disorder:  #1: “Positive”: disorganized irrational thinking: “Schizophrenics have great difficulty arranging their thoughts logically and sorting out plausible conclusions from absurd ones. In conversation they jump from one topic to another as new associations come up. Sometimes they utter meaningless words or chose words for rhyme rather than meaning.” o “Probably the most important symptom of schizophrenia” o This is a pretty good description of “hebephrenic” thought, and it apparently assorts with positive symptoms. He probably no longer thinks it’s “the most important”.  #2: “Negative” or “Cognitive”: Poor attention, low motor speed, poor learning and memory, poor abstract thinking, poor problem solving o This is different from #1. It pretty well adds up to stupidity, and Carlson says it isn’t specific to schizophrenia but is also found in other brain damage syndromes - especially in cases of PFC damage. Comment: Traditionally, CNS neuron loss was thought to be associated with the negative symptoms. This was the explanation of why the antipsychotic drugs couldn’t reverse negative systems.  Carlson now associates both negative and cognitive deficits with hypofunction in the PFC. The hypofunction is presumably caused by cell loss – which is worst in the PFC – but it is not identical to cell loss since the “atypical” antipsychotics can reverse it. Perhaps PFC loss of some cells causes hypofunction in the cells that remain. 2. WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA? 1) A genetic tendency – DISC1 gene(sufficient in some cases?) 2) An environmental insult (sufficient in some cases?) 3) Pre- or perinatal cell loss 4) Further cell loss in young adulthood 5) Prefrontal cortex hypofunction plus N.Acc DA over-acitivity = hyperactivity? 3) WHAT IS THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS? 1) First the genetic tendency exists - probably a variety of genes - incomplete penetrance (genetics alone won’t cause the phenotype). In some cases due to elderly father and mutations in germline (would this be
More Less

Related notes for PCL102H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.