September 29th 2009
The city will only be just if people keep their place.
Republic book V continued:
Three key philosophical distinctions:
- Token/type (476a) [e.g. beauty and the Ladder of Love]
- Opinion/knowledge (477b) [opinion=doxa; knowledge=episteme]
- Appearance/ reality(479c)
[Note role of ignorance in the opinion/ knowledge distinction.]
Philosophers (480) = lovers of wisdom = knowers of reality = Forms
BUT: the Forms are not abstract categories; they have transcendent real existence
Total knowledge of the Forms would turn us into the Forms.
What are the Forms?
Not just abstract categories; they exist. The things that we see in the mortal plane are unreal in
our reality. In an instance ordering us is a form. When you encounter a beautiful thing or
person your soul is drawn to it or more so drawn to the aspect of beauty in it. Republic Book VI
Love-> -permanent (485b)
The ship (488b): who steers correctly? [NB: “the higher uselessness”]
-Sophist: argues for a fee. They get paid to argue against other philosophers. They are a
-Demagogue (ef. Alcibiades and Plato’s Symposium) the Demagogue has limited