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Lecture

PHILOSOPHY LECTURE OCT 15.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL100Y1
Professor
unknown
Semester
Fall

Description
October 15 2009 Philosophy Lecture General Aspects of A’s Virtue Ethics  Rules v. Norms Rules tell you what to do in a detail fashion. Norms are not rules but things that are action guiding without there being an actual rule for it.  Conventional v. Arbitrary Conventions are arrived at through practice. They are relatively fixed. They make things interesting.  Habit v. Knowledge Being virtuous is not about acquiring more knowledge but by imitating someone who is virtuous thus learning the habits of one who is virtuous.  Practical judgment(phronesis) This is a kind of effective know how in getting things done. They know how to respond correctly to any circumstance. This is a key element in being virtuous.  Action/character Being virtuous is dynamic; it comes out of virtuous character that originates from virtuous actions. Virtue and Human Flourishing  Good = end of action (1097a15) A good is an end of an action but only applies to entities capable of acting, so not a tree for they cannot act, but we as human beings can. Acting is a discrete undertaking within the world of human possibility. A good is actually the end of a PROPER action.  Happiness is complete/self-efficient/choice worthy(1097b) Our desire to be happy does not need justification; it is an end unto itself. You can’t not want to be happy in the joy-joy sense. You want to flourish.  Human function is the soul’s activity  That activity expresses reason (ef. ‘featherless bipeds’) We have the capacity in our soul to reason. We are the reasoning political animals.  That expression is excellence (1098a)  We call that excellence virtue (arête) Goods  External (moral luck; material condition)  Internal physical  Internal psychological Cf. Solon’s warning: “Call no man happy until he is dead” In fact: Call no person happy even after he or she is dead! Virtues  Dispositions to act  Character traits (1107a)  Imitation and habit  V. Deontological (duty- or rule-based)  V. Consequentiality (results-based) CHARACTER -> ACTION -> CHARACTER -> ACTION etc. Hitting the Mean - Phronesis; deficiency and excess Deficiency Mean Excess (cowardice) courage (rashness) (feelings) temperance; self restraint un restrained (external goods) Generosity Magnificence; the virtue of throwing your money around Magnanimity; one should not become a slave to external goods Re: small honours; take honours as they come but don’t
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