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Lana Khule

CUES NOTES – Substance DUALISM Dualism: the mind and the brain/body are distinct from one another. The nature Substance Dualism = distinct of the mind relies in no way on the brain/body Substance Dualism: Stems from Descartes (1596-1650) - the mind and the brain/body are distinct substances (a substance is a particular type of thing in the world). 2 Arguments: Descartes two main arguments: Conceivability – conceive The Conceivability Argument therefore yes - I can clearly and distinctly conceive of the mind without the body o Clear and distinct = vivid and the idea stands alone o Mind = a thinking thing, not extended in space o Body = a material/corporeal thing, that is extended in space - What I can clearly and distinctly conceive of can be brought about by God o He argues elsewhere about the existence of God as all powerful and not a deceiver o God can make what you are thinking a reality - (therefore) God could bring about the existence of a mind without a body - The mind and the body are two distinct things Divisibility – different attributes The Divisibility Argument - The body is by its very nature divisible - The mind is by its very nature indivisible - (therefore) There is one attributes that each has the other doesn’t - A difference in attributes means a difference in things o If A & B do not share the same attributes they are not the same thing - (therefore) The mind and the body are two distinct things He is really saying the mind and body are two different substances A substance is something that can exist by itself and is characterized by certain attributes. For Descartes, the world is made up of only two different kinds of substances: mental and physical Mental Substance: attribute of thought/thinking, of indivisibility, and of not being extended in space. Corporeal Substance: attribute of divisibility and being extended in space The mind and the body are intimately connected: “I am very closely joined and, as it were, intermingled with it, so that I and the body for a unit. If this were not so, I, who am nothing but a thinking would not feel pain when the body was hurt.” Interactionism – the mind and Interactionism: the body are intimately 1. There’s a particular place at which the mind and the brain connect and connected – pineal gland and communicate with each other – the pineal gland. nerves 2. The mind affects the brain (and the brain the body), and vice versa, in a very mechanistic manner involving the nerves. Argument by Analogy – Objections to Descartes Meditation: mimicking 1. Against Conceivability Argument a. Why should we think that what we clearly and distinctly can conceive of give us a distinct picture b. Argument by analogy: mimicking your argument and coming out with a conclusion that is totally wrong  if your argument is so great, I should be able to use an analogous argument that is valid c. Therefore by analogy you cannot draw the conclusion that you do d. Descartes response: The analogy fails! The two things you are t
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