KANT: THE PROJECT
 Immanuel Kant (1724–1804): life and times. Kant as an academic philosopher and his use
of technical terminology, usually self-coined. Philosophy as ‘critique’ and as a response to
Descartes and Hume.
 The project of the Prolegomena: the conditions under which it is possible to have a scientiﬁc
metaphysics. Kant describes his approach to the question here as using the “analytic method”
 which seems to mean, roughly, that he begins with some phenomenon X and then seeks
to uncover the conditions under which the existence of X is possible. These conditions then
explain how X is even possible, and perhaps why it is actual. Note that this is an explanation,
not a justiﬁcation; the validity of X is assumed from the outset.
 The general form of Hume’s Problem : What is the origin of any metaphysical concept?
That is, how is it possible for a concept to “think the connection of things a priori”? Kant
takes metaphysics literally as meta-physics, the principles that underlie scientiﬁc knowledge;
it therefore cannot be indebted to any parochial features of (say) human cognition, since it is
concerned with reality in itself.
 Kant thinks that two distinctions that Hume aligned in fact cut across one another, namely