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february 14th 2013.odt

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Jennifer Whiting

Phl200 aristothe february 14 2013 the soul • The soul is the form and the essene of the body • kind of body hes talking about is a living body, alive recieve locomote reproduce and so on • the body as matter not as flesh blood bones, talking about something that has in itself its own principle of motion and rest • uses example fo the eye and living things 4.12 b • have to decide in what genus soul belongs • whether its this in a substance or a quality or a quantity, the osul is a substance • organized these things into form and matter • body-matter- hule • soul-form-morphe • animal plant compound • matter as the substance of all things only makes sense if talking aobut living bodies • soul is cause of being what it is a living body depends on existence of the soul • soul is the more causally relative factor in explaining nature of plant or animal • primary name to be called substance • theres a way in which we can be talking about just the animal, sometimes in soul sometimes in body • not too seperate things here • shouldnt ask if soul and body are one, anymore than the wax and the seal or the matter in which the thing is matter • one and being our spoken of in certain ways are fully one • thinking about the wax and the seal and stamp something into it • could be thinking about wax, cant have seal without impression • cant have matter wihtout soul in it— • this body and this soul neither can exist apart • analogies which arent quite right, or irrelevent • instrument, axe or natural body then being an axe would be its substance • substance associated with the categories • more what the thing is then an animal does • substance tied closly wih being an ultimate subject • being an axe would be its substance, soul would be this • makes htis comparison—this substance would no longer be an axe except homonomously • homonomously—name of the axe, being contraste wiht synonymy (axe in name and definition)--something which is essential to beign an axe except in name • in fact however, its an axe, just an axe, unliving thing • if hte eye were an animal sight would be its soul • sight is the substance corresponding to the account • apply this point • apply this now to the whole body • mere potentiality ◦ to become a percieving and knowing thing • first actualtiy ◦ case where you actually can percieve, you are a perccieving thing, aaquired a kind of knowledge but not always using that knowledge, already know but not always exercising • 2 actuality ◦ using perception or knowledge, having capacity to percieve and to know—having capacity, while first actuality a kind of potentiality • baby a potential knower but can already percieve • can exercercise the potential in a way but not a knower • once you learn mathematics or greek using 2 actuality • baby a living hting can percieve, soul first actuality of the body • the seed not a living thing but can become one • atleast an embryo, or hear tin blooded animals • once have embryo with sensation you have an animal body • got the animal actually alive—embryo a living animal or thing, not always exercising but capable fo it but by time its born, capacity to percieve not to know • in chapter 2 we talk about what living is • identifies living with ◦ understanding ◦ locomoting and resting ◦ percieving ◦ nourishing one self ◦ growing ◦ decaying • ^ all things belonging to human animals • percieving gives us the animal • animals nourish them selves they grown and decay but so do plants • if a creature has one of these things tis said to be alive • having any one of these means your alive • if gods have only one of these than theyre alive • he doesnt say everything nourishes itself, but says nothing that has no share of life is nourished —significnat • skim over rest of that chapter, repeats account of soul aquiring htat body • predeccessors wrong about thinking of soul without a body (aka pyth and plato wrong) • end of hcapter three says the higher things imply the lower ones • some animals live by appearance while others lack it • fantasia, imagination • theoretical intellect requires a different account—a different kind of soul existing on its own • very cautious of what to say here, thinks it exists on its own • nutrition ◦ some hybrids that are sterile, all living things belonging to complete kinds have the natural desire to produce same thing as itself—babies ◦ desire for immortality ◦ individual animal ant exist as the individual it is forever but can be immortal in form or kind ◦ after making htis point he talks about the soul being a cause in 3 different ways ◦ what is the souls formal cause of the animal--? ▪ Shape of parts and their relationships, ie 2 eyes, walking onj 2, etc ▪ animates the body ▪ soul the efficient cause as well ▪ the soul causing me to write things on board walk over here to ehar something better ▪ soul digesting my breakfast ▪ the soul, although the form of the body is also the efficient cause of all kinds of bodily causes, not just locomoting digesting nourishment etc ▪ account of nourishment, 4.16a30 ▪ nourishment being affected by thing nourished while thing nourished not affeted by nourishment ▪ matters affected by carpenter, carpenter not affected matters ▪ nourishment here is a case where the hamburger or vegeburger goes in and the vege burger is not flesh and gets converted by fleshy part of soul into flesh ▪ nutritive capacity of soul has an affect on these stuff
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