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Brad Inwood

PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy Brad Inwood, Jennifer Whiting - try to use translations suggested - complete works of Plato edited by Cooper and Hutchinson, produced by Hackett, kindle - 3 essay tests, in lecture, 5% each - given set of 3 topics/questions and will be told which theme to write on during that class - one of these essays test will be developed into your formal final essay which is due on last day of class - copy of essay test will be turned in with formal essay - tutorial quizzes will give you an idea of what to see on midterm and final WEEK ONE September 11, 2012 Socrates the Pivor: 469-399 BCE: • Top 10 “Presocratics” (in chronological order, date sin BCE) Only need to remember what makes Socrates so special in • Thales c. 625 - c. 525 comparison to Presocratics and • Anaximander 610 - c. 540 especially Democritus • Pythagoras c. 570 - • Xenophanes c. 580 - c. 470 • Heraclitus floruit 500 • Parmenides b. 540 (?) or 515 (?) • Empedocles c. 495 - c. 435 • Anaxagoras c. 500 - 428 • SOCRATES b. 470 • Democritus b. 460-457 (?) or 470-469(?) (contemporary of Socrates) • according to Cicero philosophers before Socrates were concerned more with scientific data (what things were made of) and when Socrates cmae into light he asked the “heavens” questions about life, morality, good and evil, his method of discussion (elenchus) - thus producing different parts of philosphy, unlike the “presocratics” • what did Socrates say or do to make people who followed after him claim to be true Socratic followers? “many sects of philosophy” - Cicero • “Minor Socratics” cared more about virtue • Antisthenes (c. 455-360) - cared most about virtue Cynic school (forerunner of Stoicism) • Aristippus of Cyrene (c. 435-356) - cared most about pleasure Cyrenaic School (forerunner of Epicureanism) • Eucleides of Megara (c. 450-380) Megarian School • opposition of “Socratic” schools to one another 1 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • virtue is highest good (Cynics and Stoics) • pleasure is highest good (Cyrenaics and Epicureans) • connection between pleasure and virtue • major Socratic? Plato: 429-347 BCE • some believe views of Socrates are really Plato’s views • Aristotle • one of first “historians” of philosophy • according to Aristotle Socrates “was busying himself about ethical matters and neglecting the world of nature as a while but seeking the universal in these ethical matters, and fixed thought for the first time on definitions” - not seeking “typical” philosophy of the time which was more natural sciences • talks of Plato accepting Socrates’s teaching in relation to philosophy and his development of definitions and that definitions could not hold, thus calling them Ideas or Forms • differences between Xenophon’s Socrates and Plato’s Socrates Xenophon Plato -never avows ignorance - claims to be ignorant -capable of defining virtues - cannot define virtues - -claims to teach - - - -almost never practices “elenchus” or -frequently uses “elenchus” and “irony” “irony” - - -treats cirtue as result of practice - - -treats virtue as kind of knowledge - helping friends, harming enemies - - -should never harm others, not even - enemies Origin of Philosophy: • distinctive intellectual activity • before Socrates seemed quite scientific • philosophy was not controversal before Socrates and Plato - changed perspective • Cicero suggests around the time of Pythagoras philosophy was a new thing, not commonly known • difference between people who try to know things and people who engage in doing things - contemplation vs. practice 2 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy September 13, 2012 Not important to memorize, just to give sense of scope of • 600 time between those who started • Thales philosophy, later philosophical writers who provide important • 300 information about the • Aristotle Presocratics • Plato • Socrates...Epicurus • Chrysippus • Cicero • 0 • Plutarch • 300 • Sextus E, Clement, Dionyenes L, Porphyry • 600 • Simplicuis • Stobaeus • how many principles do you need? • one principle or many, standard narrative of early philosophers • principles referring to greek word arkhe (arche), meaning starting point • shouldn’t one be astonished by the multiplicity of the world? Stevenson “Happy Thought” • Aristotle said philosophy should being in a sense of wonder • philosophers take extra step to say “why” • Aristotle thinks a universal human inclination to ask why • relationship between plurality and principles (starting point) used to ask how and why • is what I see, what is really there? is my perception correct? where did it come from? • key problem for first thinkers: how many principles are there? • what are they? • how do they work to explain things? • how do they function? • are philosophers the only people who approach the world this way? OR are philosophers the only people who the world appears to this way? • is that all there is to philosophy? • Pythagoras is important because he is the one who is coined for the term “philosophy” • important to note Simplicius is one of most important people who wrote of the Presocratics 3 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • commenting on Aristotle, copies out a long quote of Parmenides because he realized it was not commonly seen • philosophy is a tradition, social practice, and through going back to antiquity stays in that tradition • later philosophers had historical context of around what time they lived • Plato and Aristotle (more than Plato) shape the way we perceive the Presocratics - Cicero also drawing on this distinction • Aristotle leaning toward principles and causes - hence his distinction between Presocratics and Socrates • Plato and Aristotle discussed their predecessors, rarely quoting them, because the texts were still widely available • Simplicius, however, knew these texts were rare, so he quoted them for later students • Aristotle • Theophrastus • wrote histories of philosophy that were most influential for the rest of antiquity • basically writes a textbook for history of philosophy • way he looked/perceived early philosophers is very important for how we perceive them now • get many literary authors who take information from these textbooks into their writing • even philosophers will go to these books • some later philosophers, in the common era, stopped doing this and looked for primary sources to create different view that was usually portrayed of earlier philosophers(ex: Plutarch, Clement) • earth, air, fire, water • philosophy from Pedicles is about material stuffs mixing, moving, and being analyzed • Impedacles • looking at box 1 and box 2 (page 12 and page 20) • complicated thinker • physical analysis of elements of change • • “narsicistic biographical footnote” Inwood • lots of information about Plato and Aristotle, but have to formulate and fill in the gaps for the other Presocratics because of lack of evidence 4 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy WEEK TWO September 20, 2012 Parmenides’s Main Argument • same level of importance as Socrates for ancient Greek Philosophy • Socrates doing this by using certain type of argument, and sticking to that against common sense - commitment to reason/argument • these same reasons are what made Parmenides stick out as well • reductio ad absurdum argument style can be used on purpose to undermine opponent’s argument • what Parmenides says about “being” built his argument to change/set the direction for Western Philosophy, how it so continuously is concerned with what it is “to be” • also responsible for contrast between reason vs. senses and reality vs. appearance • pg. 47 • contrast between what people already believe and what is justified by reason • being tracks truth • can’t find something that is not there • for any given things: it either is or is not • path of not being leads nowhere - cannot think about that which is not • according to Parmenides you cannot think about what is not or properly talk about it or reason from it • Goddess says there are two routes to take, but the route that is nothing leads nowhere • cannot combine these two = either end up in confusion or at the first route again • Parmenides thinks most humans are like this most of the time - confused - thinking they can trust their senses, and what they see is meaningful, but this is not true • what you perceive is just what you are accustomed to • can judge by reason or go by your perceptual habits - but according to the Goddess if you follow your perceptual habits you will be blind and confused • if you’re going to go down the path of being and you won’t be allowed by your own decision to talk about what is not • lose resources to describe plurality, diversity, and change when you go down the path that does not allow you to talk about what is not • when people come into being according to Empedocles, do they really come into being? • that daimone has always been there • only a mixing or things is what we call birth • meaningless empty labels for things when, in reality there is one thing - but then why would we all perceive these things similarly? and can usually agree on how we are perceiving some things - you would think if it was really not true, there would be a problem in congruency 5 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • gives us theory of the world (p 47, box 9): • box 14 p70: • with Empedocles you have earth, air, fire, water moved around with September 18, 2012 • 1. Natural (monists) • Thales: Water • also associated water with life • Anaximander: indefinite stuff • Anaximenes: Air • 2. Eleatics • Parmenides: The One • gives a priori arguments - based on reasoning alone • cannot think or speak coherently about what is not - to talk about something is not to talk about nothing • aporia - puzzles, paradox • first to ask us to judge by reason alone, not “judge by reason” as Osborne says • Melissus • Zeno • Heraclitus: Fire? • 3. Natural (Pluralists) • had a natural world view that respected the view Parmenides put forth • earth, air, fire, and water cannot come into being, but are always there • Empedocles: Earth, Air, Fire, Water • Anaxagoras: numerous indefinitely divisable components • Democritus: countless indivisible components • countless atoms, indivisible - all different shapes and sizes, did not come from nothing, have always been there • calls void where atoms move nothing • silly to believe that two things could ever mix to be one, just fit together until some stronger force breaks them apart • what appears to us through the senses and what we really see in reality • believes we should consider the opinions of the many more than the opinions of the wise • • story Osborne tells is similar to story of Aristotle - many reports that we have are from Aristotle or his students • presocratics were trying to explain the empirical (comes from word meaning experience) phenomena (comes from word to appear) around them • air and fire contenders for arke against water, but no one said earth was the one thing 6 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • * box on page 37 • by convention - nomos • by nature - phusis (physics) • physics for presocratics is the science of nature (like our science) • soul something that produces motion • Anaximenes is trying to explain the mechanisms of change • soul associated with air and what is incorporeal • difference between what reason tells us and what our senses tells us • problem that is still evident in contemporary philosophy • names are just labels we apply to one thing that is around us 7 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy WEEK THREE September 25, 2012 Pluralism • Anaxagoras raises questions about pluralism • structure of material things - atoms which cannot be subdivided or matter/ substance • coherence of his views unclear and not lasting • what’s real is clearly different from what is seen - difference between reality and appearance • distance is distorted • funhouse mirror • fundamental and irresolvable gap • appearances and • knowledge is state of mind where being is natural and proper object • opinion/belief has as its natural and proper object appearances • line of continuity from Parmenides to Plato • Democritus: things we see are not true and only perception, everything are atoms in a void • relationship between real things and appearances • claims underlying realities explain the appearances - not alone in believing this • being “puzzled” by reality, pushing to pursue Philosophy - similar to how Aristotle states Philosophy starts in a state of wonderment • box 14, p 70 • get to atoms by thinking and argument • get to earth through perception Atomists • not being exists just as much as not being does • meaning void can be not being • think of being as bodily stuff in purist form, therefore not being is just emptiness • must be something more fundamental than appearances and perception • truth is in the depths - senses don’t give any pertinent information • explanatory entities share stability • precondition for this kind of explanation • Anaxagoras • if you think of object that needs explanation: ex horse made of particles • horse is pile of atoms and particles can’t be cut, piece of horse bone is smallest atom • why do we stop there? couldn’t that be divisible? if that is the case, why should we stop there? = infinite regress 8 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy Xenophanes • because gods plan, act, and decide we might think that they should be formed in a similar way that we do • gods tend to be ethnocentric • peoples’ beliefs are relative to their own lives, thus undermining their credibility • underlying assumption of relativism that we should be skeptical of our own views - Xenophanes brings this up, but does not resolve it • beliefs unstable because they might be projections of personal prejudices • Xenophanes concludes that he will assert the opposite of those views - ex. there is one god and he is unlike any human being • 1. beliefs are relative and explain how people got them • 2. and therefore the opposite is true • if you just use the negative, may end up in a skeptical view point • box 13 , p 66 • gap between knowledge and true belief September 27, 2012 • aporia from poros - a path • Socrates as part of the aporetic tradition • first recorded use of word “cosmos” (kosmos) • box 24 • of this logos forever people prove uncomprehending. • Aristotle commented that Hericlitus was hard to comprehend due to bad punctuation and phrases which could be understood in more than one way • p 82 • Aristotle thinks apparently contradictory items cannot be true ini the same respect • Aristotle wants Hericlitus to admit something - this views is presumably that contradictory items can be true • what is that very saying? things can be and not be at the same time • if it is both true and false then he’s wrong (?) - liar’s paradox • p 87 • “These rivers the same ones stepping, different waters flor • is it the same river or the same people stepping into the rivers, both? • what is a river? a flowing body of water • people and river are always changing - both are flowing constantly • but what about the banks? something constant and something flowing in both cases of river and people • p 85 • x is hot, x is cold • could be one part is hot and one is cold • could change temperature • could be relative to person saying statement 9 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • property hot or cold does not become cold or hot • Hesiod presented night and day as different gods which were never there at the same time • what do we have in the world? • matter - stuffs • energy - heat, kinetic, ect • space + mass - • time - • organisms - kinds of organisms • motion(s) • mind(s)/soul(s) • night and day • seasons 10 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy WEEK FOUR October 2, 2012 Tutorial Quizzes • no graded: participation is only assessed • designed to help develop skills in reading for course - history of philosophy • need to develop habits of close and attentive reading, so you have raw material for critical and creative work • focus on steady work through term, building up content for discussion and essays The Sophists Socrates • never left Athens unless it was for Greek purpose • however, was richest and most powerful city in the Hellenistic world • sophists = professional teaching through speaking • will see interesting view from Plato on being paid to teach in Protagoras • dealing with world where ideas travel as well as those who come up with the ideas th • development of medicine important in 5 Century BC Hippocrates: • people went to this island to learn to be doctors • learned through kind of inquiry • organized teaching in complicated kind of inquiry available as a model for philosophers Herodotus • wrote “History” one of first to do so • from coast of Asian Minor and travelled a lot • moved to Athens where he lectured, talked, sold his books - sophistic nature • but taught history and ethnography, not philosophy • illustrated how other cultures were different from Greeks and why • “gift of Hera” Plato’s Protagoras • if you teach is it successful by • is it a matter of well digested information or well worked out techniques? or something deeper? • concerned with what counted as teaching and what counted as learning • sophists special according to Plato because • not so special • broad based intellectual reasoning •Protagoras 11 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • important sophist from Abdera • Democritus also from Abdera • “first in the market place” • • Prodicus • from Ceos • philosophy of language • need distinction between words to truly important for intellectual progress • one of first philosophers of language • something to do with justice • Hippias • from Elis • “horseback rider” • Gorgias • most important sophist in Plato’s view • from Leontini • logos as arguments (philosophical and rhetorical) • Gorgias criticized for being specialized in rhetorical arguments • need to think about whether rhetorical arguments and philosophical arguments are fundamentally different • Gorgias made this an issue claiming to teach the art of speaking (rhetoric) independent of any subject - can the form really be separated from the substance here? • Thrasymachus • major challenger to Plato in Book I of the Republic • taught rhetoric and stressed importance of -- • from Calcedon • • Antiphon • Athenian • name meaning: opposing voice • according to writing usually on the wrong side of things • connected with type of persuasive argument used with cynical motivations • • Osborne emphasizes that these sophists were following the money, clearly presenting her own opinion • “philosophical education will make you a successful citizen, but it will cost you” • how did they all end up in Athens at the same time? • interesting speakers, gathered together to talk to each other • Athens was not only centre of money and power, but also of intellectual activity Sohpist’s themes • relativism • in customs, values, • contrast of nature and convention 12 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • fusus + nomos • power of argument and importance of testing that argument • Gorgias writes a defense speech in praise of Helen to show the power of argument • box 35, page 125 • the power of speech...speech • then says that Ecncomium of Helen was a joke • speech “on not being” • Gorgias uses style of argument of the Illyiacs • either could know it, or couldn’t communicate it • no reality, if there were it couldn’t be know, if it could be known it wouldn’t be known • what are the limits of argument? October 4, 2012 The Protagoras • frame for dialogue: • can see Alcibiades as being in conversations with Socrates • can also see Socrates’ attraction to him • kind of a locker room conversation in the beginning • talked about physical beauty - entry point for Socrates - continues into “real attraction” which is wisdom and that really interests Socrates • Socrates rises expectations of the reader saying Protagoras is the wisest man of all • then friend of Socrates becomes excited the Protagoras is in town and no one had told him • nested set of stories • “monopoly on wisdom” • Socrates says if you pay the price you can gain that wisdom • characterization of Socrates • notice 311b • wants to test HIppocrates’ character • knows a couple of things, but wants to know more • Socrates is a friend who tests people through asking questions • an examination - elenchus • Socrates and Hippocrates: • Hippocrates embarrassed to study to become a sophist, so Socrates suggests that this might not be what he’ll get out of Protagoras • what is a sophist? • someone who is an expert at knowing things - “wisdom specialist” • what is wisdom? wise in what? • need to call attention to the content/subject matter of sophist’s expertise 13 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • whether a craft/skill/branch of education has to have a distinct subject matter • Socrates wants substantive content, each content pressing for more detail • 312e: on what subject does a sophist make you a clever teacher? • on what subject the sophist understands • what is that subject? • Hippocrates does not know how to answer • in a poria • 313: come back to this thought when reading the Gorgias • doctor treating the body • “physician of the soul” provides treatment for the soul • analogy that is in Ancient Philosophy often • Socrates and Hippocrates with Protagoras • Protagoras thinks being honest about his trade is best • but what is his trade? • how to be an effective public citizen with ability to speak well (rhetoric) • how to run a household effectively • = how to be a leader • Socrates “recasts” this as teaching people virtues • because teaching people to be a good citizen is to teach them the virtue of citizenship • says to Protagoras that he’s confused because he didn’t believe people could teach others citizenship • why does Socrates believe you cannot teach a person citizenship? • in democratic Athens, special expertise is for specific topics, and you couldn’t find an expert for citizenship • no real subject matter for being a leader • rationale for not having a test - making all equal to go for position • virtues can’t be taught - tells story of Pericles • if he’s trying to teach something that can’ be taught, he could be prosecuted for fraud - similar to the way Socrates is later prosecuted for “corrupting the youth” - perhaps this is why sophists are embarrassed of their trade • Socrates challenges Protagoras to tell him the story of how to teach a virtue • Protagoras decides to tell a story “as if an older man to a younger audience” thus condescending Socrates • in a democracy there is a good reason why expertise is not required • because there is something special about every individual which gives them every right to participate • don’t we learn virtue? • • importance of studying this: • gives us a portrait of a sophist, what he does, why he does it - counter balance to Osborne’s characterization • shows how a sophist operates • see them interacting with ambitious younger people seeking knowledge 14 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • peopl think they have a view, turns out they don’t have a well worked out view and deconstructs their argument - uses analogies to test someone’s beliefs • person Socrates is talking to usually comes to an a poria and Socrates sometimes helps interlocutor get out of the rut, sometimes not • body-soul comparison - healthy of the body, health of the soul - which is more important? 15 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy WEEK THREE October 9, 2012 17a-24b 24b-28b 28b-32a 32a-33e 34a-35d THE APOLOGY • comes in three parts • first part is the defense speech - longest • break and there is a vote, guilty verdict comes in • second is a response of Socrates to accused charges • third is closing remarks speech after death sentence has been given • parts of the Apology 17a-24b 24b-28b 28b-32a 32a-33e 34a-35d • timekeeper who puts time limits on speeches - how long did Socrates get to speak? • would have been running on a water clock • if issues are complicated you don’t really have enough time to sort them out • Socrates even says that he thinks he could have persuaded the Assembly if he’d had more time • why does Socrates approach the Assembly the way he does? • what are Socrates’s objectives? does he really want to be acquitted? • makes strategic choices • when he puts emphasis on God of Delphi (Oracle) it is a carefully calculated decision • SPEECH ONE ~17a-24b • contrasts himself from other public speakers 17a-18a - speakers who use rhetoric and lie - exposing the falseness of their accusations - allows emphasis on crossexamination • “duty of the speaker” “duty of the judges/jury” • speaker: speak truth and nothing else • judges/jury: to decide what is truth, not to be swayed by emotion (rhetoric) • distinguishes two sets of accusers: the old and the current • old: people who have shaped the view of Socrates to the public and Assembly • includes Aristophanes a very successful comic poet who wrote the Clouds (produced twice in his lifetime) reinforcing certain stereotypes • new: natural philosophers and the sophists 16 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • sophists characterized as those who make the weaker arguments the stronger - this turn of phrase coming STRAIGHT from Aristophanes’s writing - teaching people to speak persuasively • natural philosophers described as those who enquire about things in the heavens and things deep in the earth (things that cannot be seen) - Anaxagoras (important foil to Socratic enquiry) explicitly mentioned • distinguishing that he is not part of either of these groups to avoid prejudice • portrayal of Socrates in the Clouds is someone who is both a sophist AND a natural philosopher • wants to makes sure that the Assembly knows that he does not charge fees • accusers must have said that Socrates is a professional teacher accepting wages for his services • ~19 • names Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias, Evenus as professional teachers who charge money • brings up Callias (host in the Protagoras) spending more money on sophists than anyone else • ~20 • point of view of Callias: who will you hire to take care of your children? so that they will turn out as fit human beings (the way you would hire a horse breeder for your horses) - says this because Callias is spending money to educate his children • but since Socrates doesn’t charge, he can’t be held responsible in the same way as these people who Callias hires • ~20c • develops an awareness of his own limits • has a kind of wisdom, but not the kind you can’t sell • his wisdom consists in knowing that he does not know anything • logos and elenchus is how Socrates talks to people to find out what he knows and what they know or usually do not know with the exception of a craftsmen • ~22e • secret to human wisdom is knowing your limits • to Socrates’s advantages to know that he doesn’t know whether to know and be arrogant (package deal) • • ACCUSATIONS + cross • Meletus says that Socrates is an atheist and that he bring in some new spiritual things • Meletus probably didn’t realize his views were conflicting • no one is aware of this until Socrates brings it out • this pattern of Socrates talking to an individual who doesn’t realize the implications of their beliefs is common among Socratic dialogues and is what brings in the theme of aporia • who benefits the youth? 17 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • basically everyone except for Socrates • test view by analogy - reveals that it is supposed to be a small number of experts who can teach well rather than the other way around • social matrix as a whole which reinforces social values (from Protagoras) • Meletus is not wrong but he doesn’t know what he’s talking about • Socrates says that he is being irresponsible because he does not know enough about education to accuse Socrates of such corruptions • Socrates is subversive - reveals the fact that experts do not know what they pretendi to know (embarrassing) • several references to the crowd uproar during cross examination of Meletus - crowd probably hostile towards Socrates • ~28b cross examination is done and Meletus has been defeated • SPEECH TWO ~28b-32a • fear of death, nature of true courage, shame • consider relative importance of death and standing by your convictions • since he doesn’t know whether death is a good thing or a bad thing, but knows that cowardice is very bad, as well as not pursuing mission from the Oracle, he gives integrity all of the weight • BUT if he knew that death was the worst thing to choose, he would choose otherwise • Socrates always tries to choose the advantageous thing • ~32a-33e • discussion of private life vs. public life • makes contrast between proving by words and proving by deeds • contrast with nature and convention themes • ~34a-35d • accountability • summarizes his good duties to society - good soldier • this speech is much more like a tradition defense speech • ends reminding the jurors what their duty is when they vote • character, proofs, cross examination • proposes free meals for life - wants what he deserves as compensation if he wins • more people voted for death than voted for Socrates being guilty • clearly meant to think something important is going in in the way he addresses the Assembly • challenges them and they fail the challenge • not in the first time, but when the people changed their minds and voted for the death sentence • probably people without stable volitions • Socrates remarks only a certain amount of people are true judges • talks of providing benefit and raising the young - cares very much about the education of the young • piety comes back at the end • MAJOR THEMES IN THE APOLOGY 18 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • what is true benefit? • advantage vs. benefit • nature of death • if someone makes a mistake, they are confused • contrast between sophists, natural philosophers, and what Socrates is doing • knowing limitations • true nature of courage • standing up in face of shame and public opinion • real intellectual and moral benefit • moment of aporia embarrassing October 11, 2012 “Socratic” dialogues of Plato • attempt to ask “what is x?” • aporetic ending • elenctic method • Socrates’s professions of ignorance • absence of Theory of Forms Laches • c. 475-418 (died retreating in battle) • L1: 190e - willing to remain at post without running away • L2: 192e - endurance of the sovereign • L3: 192d - wise endurance Nicias c. 475-413 • N1: some kind of wisdom - 194d • N2: knowledge of things to be feared/hoped - 195a/196d • N3: knowledge of goods and evils Laches • date of dialogue important, date of setting • “consumption” date - audience would have known these historical events • Socrates is dragged into the dialogue • Laches and Nicias are famous generals • very long introduction - uncharacteristic of Socratic dialogue • Socrates asks for an account of courage “What is courage?” • Laches gives first definition • 190e: courage is to remain at one’s post and not to run away • ironic because Laches dies retreating in battle • Nicias consulted seers/prophets before battle • precisely reliance on superstition which is the reason he failed 19 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • watching guy fighting in armour asking about whether their sons should be like this • deflect question to Socrates • 184d: would you rather go with the majority? or consult an expert? • 185c-d: Nicias resists change of subject • shows Socrates is relying on certain principles within his elenchus • gives inductive argument (arguments by analogy) to make interlocutor accept his argument • gone from studying form of fighting and armour to studying form of the soul of young men • Laches raises question of whether in which one becomes an expert through being taught or some other way (naturally talented) • introducting this aporia to the interlocutor is the first step to “true knowledge” • so as long as the interlocutor thinks that he knows, he will not get true knowledge • Socrates’s mission is to enlighten others to not care about superficial things and to save their souls • Laches gives one example of what it is to be courageous • Socrates says he wants to know what constitutes courageousness for every individual - general definition • Socrates gives an example which makes Laches admit it seems to be “endurance of the soul” • 192c: courage not as a definition of a word, but with relation to the soul - power of the soul • virtues are all fine/noble things • Laches gets to a sort of aporia and brings in Nicias • Nicias says courage is a kind of wisdom • Socrates asks wisdom of what kind? • Nicias has intellectualist view - courage as a kind of knowledge • Laches thinks it is a strength of character • Laches says he knows it but he can’t say it, but Laches says earlier what we know we should be able to state (logos) 190c • Nicias: knowledge of the things to be feared and the things to be hoped • not the sort of knowledge you can get from a seer • 197a: being without fear and being courageous are different things 20 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy October 18, 2012 intro 447a-448e Gorgias 449a-461b (Polus interrupts) Polus 466a-481a (Callicles interrupts) Callicles 481a-522e Final Myth 523-527e — logos? • Gorgias represented as being too ashamed to really say what his beliefs are so... • Callicles is represented as the shameless one • dialogue as a defense of Socrates because the audience would know he did not fight his execution • “self-control” is not great as a translation • comes from the word sofron which can also mean temperate, moderate - has only reasonable desires and isn’t always struggling about other desires • eudaimonia - daimonia being a spirit, in this case a good spirit • if you live a charmed life, you are in control • S: always worse (more evil) to do rather than to suffer wrong • doing injustice is worse than receiving injustice • if you do injustice and get away with it, that’s worse than if you do injustice and are punished accordingly • perhaps Socrates has an “agent neutral” view • 508c-d • Callicles has been making fun of Socrates for not putting up a good defense • readers would know that Socrates was put to death and didn’t defend himself • list of things “a real man wouldn’t let be done to him” • cross reference: many of the same themes that have been raised in the apology • keep in mind the question of what something is vs. what its qualities are • G is talking about things rhetoric can allow you to do, but not what it actually is • as a kind of persuasion - S questions a persuasion about what? • 456d • G admits oratory can be misused but then in that case you don’t blame the teacher, but the person who uses it wrongly - speech • S objects that Gorgias is saying aren’t very consistent to what he was saying initally • S says he himself would be pleased to be refuted if he says anything untrue - wouldn’t be any less pleased to be refuted than to refute others • 459c • S says oratory doesn’t need knowledge of subject, but persuasion device that makes people believe someone has more knowledge than another “bullshit” • not “teaching” persuasion, but persuasion alone • 461a: S sums up speech with G and P interrupts • P: are you saying what you really thing S? or do you think G was too ashamed? • P doesn’t think it’s a craft, but a “knack” • S says it’s a knack for a kind of gratification or pleasure 21 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • gymnastics is preventative medicine and medicine is immediate • legislation preventative, justice immediate • what’s best for the and what’s pleasant • what is pleasant varies from one individual to another • misery is a subjective state 466b • Socrates asks if Polus is asking a question or starting another speech • P responds that it is a question • power is good for the one who has power • P assumes power is good for the one who has it • S says orators has least power of city • P suggests they have a lot of power • P distinguishes: • a) doing what one wants • b) doing what one sees fit • things could be good, bad, or both 468d • flattery vs. tyranny • paraseia - someone who will tell you what they think no matter what • tyrants have problem keeping power for a long time because they keep only flatterers around them, not people with paraeseia 473 • S says doing injustice is worse than suffering it and asks P if he thinks he refuted S • S says it is impossible to refute something that is a fact October 25, 2012 kalos/kalon: -beautiful, fine, noble, graceful aischros/h: - ugly, base, ignoble, disgraceful worse -more painful, more shameful more shameful -more painful, more harmful • come back with S saying it is always worse to do than receive harm • P thinks suffering it is worse, but doing injustice is more shameful • good, agathos --> pleasant, kalon (admirable) • bad, kakos --> painful, aischron (shameful) • something that’s bad in one sense because it’s painful can be good in another sense because it’s pleasant for you 22 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • ex. doing injustice to someone else • can also get things that are admirable in one sense and painful in another • ex. doing something courageous • pleasant and good or admirable and good can overlap in some aspects, but are not the same things • S wants to understand meaning of P’s admirable and shameful: • more admirable • more beneficial • more pleasant • more beneficial to whom? • S: if x is more admirable than y then x has to be more beneficial or pleasant (or both) than y • if x is more shameful than y then x has to be more painful or harmful (or both) than y • note: evil in translation think of evil or badness • doing injustice is not more painful for the doer, so it must be worse in some other aspect: badness • S compares punishment to getting cured - being punished for injustice is like getting cured after being ill 480 • doing what’s unjust is the second most serious evil to do it and not getting punished • being miserable without knowing it - subjective dissatisfaction • S: if all of this is true, what’s the use of oratory? • if a man or anyone else he cares unjustly, he should go voluntarily to place where he will receive punishment - EUTHYPHRO • if an enemy does this, should do anything you can to stop them from being punished because Socrates finds this worse than punishment - ironic • going against the help your friends and harm your enemies • saying this second part because he knows it’s outrageous • Callicles: asks Chaerephon is he’s being serious or not (Chaerephon is one who went to Oracle) • in regards to his whole argument? or is he only joking about then end? • Chaerephon says he thinks S is being serious, and suggests he asks • Callicles: are you being serious? because if you are, then our lives will be the opposite of how they are now • S plays on theme of flattery • each of us has two beloveds - Alcibiades (saved each others lives) and philosophy for S • philosophy less fickle than Alcibiades, but either way he wont be changing his opinion to please them - will always speak the truth to his beloveds, won’t flatter them • P then says he’s going to try to say what G actually wanted to say • too ashamed earlier to say what he thought • Callicles as shameless interlocutor, will not be a flatterer 23 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • diagnoses the problem: S claims to be talking about the truth, but in fact • phusis and nomos usually opposed to each other in such a way that if someone is ashamed to say what they think and say what they think they should say, what they say will contradict itself • if one makes a claim in terms of nature S will question about the law of it and vice versa • “All • doing what’s unjust is trying to get more than one’s share • strong contrast between nomos and phusis 485b • those who practice philosophy into old age are foolish/ridiculous 486a • Callicles talks of what might happen to Socrates - allusion to S’s trial 488a/d • whether majority aren’t inferior to --- 491d • does individual rule himself and the city - have self-control • how can someone be happy if he’s enslaved to anyone at all (even himself)? • Callicles: what’s admirable and just by nature - satisfy one’s appetites and not restrain them • stark contrast between conventional virtues (justice, self-control) and Callicles’s “natural” virtues October 30, 2012 • Callicles makes comment that Socrates will question person in opposite way that they have responded (if nature, convention, if convention, nature) • just if and only if ruler-loved • demos-loved, tyrant-loved, oligarch-loved, aristocrat-loved • depending on what sort of state you find yourself in, what’s just will differ from state to state • just by nomos because the rulers prescribe it • just if and only if god-loved • just if and only if naturally good Republic 338b • Thrasymachus claims justice is he advantage of the stronger • all must obey the ruler, just to do what is in the interest of the rulers (aka the advantage of the strong) • Socrates asks if rulers make mistakes and Thrasymachus agrees that they do • so if the ruler does something not in his interest by making a mistake, he is being unjust, so that is not what justice is • so Thrasymachus changes his account that a ruler never makes mistakes • positive law vs. natural law (phusis) • S asks a what the superior get a greater share of? food and drink? 24 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • should the cobbler go around with the most shoes? • Callicles says Socrates is being silly - states that the superior are the people who are intelligent, competent who will receive more (effeminate view) • rulers have to rule themselves - must rule pleasure and appetites within themselves • Callicles asks how a man could be happy if he has to enslave himself to anyone - man should allow his appetites/desires to grow as large as possible and when they are large as possible he must stick to his guns against opposition (bravery) • hedonism: pleasure is the good • Callicles says people are ashamed that they can’t do this, so they make it look bad by punishing those who are hedonists • facts about what is by nature good and there are people who are willing to trample others (be “brave”) to get these “naturally good” things • Socrates and Callicles appealing to nature, but each has different conception of what nature is and prescribes for humanity in regards to justice • couldn’t these rulers get so distracted by their appetite that they don’t rule? if he were a real ruler he would be so intelligent as to not make that mistake, but if he were a ruler by nature, wouldn’t he desire to rule? • hedonism can look like a subjectivist position, but it isn’t (at least not here), because someone who thinks pleasure is a bad thing (or not what you ought to do), that person is making a mistake, they are being led astray - hedonism is functioning as an objectivist argument • Callicles subscribes to school of hedonism, always - pay attention to how this is represented in the argument 492e: S attacks hedonist aspect of argument and exploits Callicles’s ideal of manliness, which he thinks is essential • those who had no need of anything, aren’t actually happy if they say they are • ideal of eudaimonia - complete satisfaction, wanting nothing • wanting nothing is the wrong conception, because Socrates says, “stones and corpses” would be happiest • Socrates is forcing Callicles to admit that this is subjective and crucial to his position • Socrates often says he hears what he uses to object people with • heard from wiseman that the soul is like a leaky jar • Socrates is accepting idea of wanting nothing, but not the kind of wanting nothing that you get in a stone or a corpse • life of disciplined man is more just than life of undisciplined man • so it isn’t just wanting nothing, it’s having wants and being able to fill them at will • living happily consists in having everyone one wants • talks about the catamites and brings up those who like to take the passive position • truly manly men don’t pursue women, but pursue men • so homosexual acts are not wrong, but pursuing the “female” role is not right 25 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • so, Callicles should say that pleasure is the good. but instead says that Socrates should be ashamed to bring this up in their conversation • so are pleasure and good the same? or is there some pleasure that isn’t good? Callicles reluctantly agrees to this • if some pleasures are bad, then hedonism is false • S tries to undermine his view by saying his hedonism requires states of emptiness and desire, which are themselves, painful and the greatest • pain as a prerequisite of pleasure • always be a mixture of pleasure and pain Gorgias cont’d 488b • S asks if superior should take by force what belongs to the infeior? justice by nature is prevailing of superior • S asks what constitutes the superior people • Callicles clarifies he means stronger • S asks if many are superior by nature to the one • some situations where many seem to be rulers and where one is ruler 499b • some pleasures are better, some worse • tension in his position about hedonism and manly ideals that Callicles has • good pleasures are the beneficial ones and bad pleasures are the opposite • should choose good pains/pleasures avoid bad pains/pleasures • should do good thngs for sake of good things, not good things for sake of pleasure SUBJECT KNACK FLATTERY PRODUCT PRODUCT BODY pastry-baking qualificationism health: med, gym cosmetics pleasure SOUL rhetoric persuasion ??: Jsh, Loys sophistry Euthyphro • what is it? - ti esti • the nature or essence • what is it like? - poion ti • affections/qualities - pathos • detectivism • constitutivism • pious = god-loved? 26 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy October 23, 2012 (x)(Px iff Gx) For anything you take at all (x) it’s pious if and only if it’s god-loved P = Pleasant or Pious G= Good or God-loved P because G? G because P? - studying - haggis - exercise/health - exercise (sport) - sacrifice to the Gods - deep-fried Mars bar - virtuous action - Viking metal - paying taxes - cosmetics - Gangnam style - good smells (new car smell, baking smells, aromatherapy) Quiz Question Clarification: Can you think of a predicate P besides pious where it would be not only appropriate but necessary to mention an affect or quality to give an adequate account to be P? - “fashionable” - it tends to appear a certain way to others - “popular” - because they appear a certain way to others - “sweet” ~Democritus “by convention sweet, by convention bitter, atoms in a void” - relationship to a subject - subjective - “beautiful” - kalon: can also mean fine, noble, beautiful When you have to mention an affect/quality why isn’t it part of the essence/nature/ phusis of the thing? - distinction between the predicate and the things of which its predicated - ex. “bobby socks are fashionable” saying of these things their being fashionable isn’t in the essence or nature of being fashionable, but peoples’ reactions to these things - the things of which fashionable predicates changes over time - these things exist and predicate other things by convention or nomos - 27 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy WEEK EIGHT November 1, 2012 Crito • Socrates has weird views of death, compared to others • seen as a kind of pious person, ironic because he’s being • discussion about when the boat will arrive for Socrates’s execution • Crito says he’s heard a report that the ship will come there tonight so Socrates will be executed tomorrow • Socrates says this isn’t true, he had a dream, quoting the Iliad • it’s a symbol for something • Crito says it is a weird dream and Socrates says it’s enough for him • shows piety even in the face of empirical reports - piety that goes beyond conventional opinion Introduction 44b-d: General Principle • opinion of the many can be set aside - should know about it, but you don’t have to regulate yourself by it • Socrates doesn’t question idea that you should avoid harm, it’s not a question, you should - the many can’t harm you because they can’t make you foolish • notice Socrates doesn’t ever question possibility of avoiding harm 44-45: • Crito is a wealthy man, meaning he has enough money to bribe the guards, get Socrates on a ship, and safe to exile • establish that escaping would be quite easy, even in legal/political sense • Crito feels if he has enough money, he can buy his way out of the legal system - money gets you what you want with safety • Socrates rejects this idea • 45c-46a • Crito guilt trips Socrates, saying he will miss him and brings up his children - • impact on others (incl family and friends), rights and wrongs of the • Crito tries to argue to Socrates that it would be unjust/wrong for Socrates to not escape • will give satisfaction to your enemies (see below, Gorgias), disgrace his sons (Apology), cowardly (compared to Achilles in Apology) • appeal to shame - Socrates should be ashamed to stay, it is unmanly (Gorgias) • 46a: bad and shameful are paired together, like in Gorgias • helping friends and harming enemies is convention greek ethos 28 PHL200 - Ancient Philosophy • people won’t just judge Socrates as giving up, but also judge Crito for not saving Socrates • Crito plays for pity, although he knows Socrates’s belief that pity is not a way you should sway an audience Middle ( 46b-48ish) • having a discussion with someone else is important to developing your views and see how they stand up to others’ • emphasize every argument can always be augmented • reasons for following argument were not effected by his circumst
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