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September 16, 2010

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University of Toronto St. George

PHL200Y1: Sept.16,2010 Pre-Socratics Natural Philosophy + Rational Argument (two different strands) • Natural Philosophy was challenged by rational argument or ‘illiadics’ • People who were less concerned with natural phenomenon and more with politics, first people who were paid to teach and there teachings seemed valuable however they taught things such as how to make a guilty person argue that he is not guilty • Aristophanes combines the two through Socrates in his play Sophists + Orators-Arguing both sides of a question ‘dissoi logoi’ - Making weaker/worse argument appear stronger or better -Protagoras c490-420 - Giogias b.c 490 The Apology (Plato’s version): Socrates begins by saying his accusers affected the jury but he was almost carried away in spite of himself at how their power of persuasion, they were not ashamed that they would be proven wrong immediately….goes on to state that he has to begin with the first accusers, distinguishing the ways in which people have characterised him throughout the years. Does this because these first accusers have affected jurors since childhood with claims that he does not believe in the Gods. Refer to page 24….cannot bring specific individuals who were his original accusers ‘What happens in the clouds is that Aristophanes takes Socrates and makes a composite figure and engaged in natural philosophy Note: Research Aristophanes Clouds Chaerephon: Makes reference to Socrates research…..crude humour in the plays • Rumour of Socrates not believing in gods were further reinforced when someone claimed ‘by the gods he swears he will pay the fee’ but Socrates responds what gods for they are not legal tender to us…these clouds are what we
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