PHL210Y1 Lecture (July 13 , 2011)
Perception is always a multitude. Perception is just the internal state. There is a
distinction between confused perception and distinct perception.
Leibniz uses the distinction between confused and distinct perceptions to tackle the issue
of one’s lack of awareness of what is happening around them.
Whatever change in a monad has to come from inside following from the “internal
In order to understand change in a monad, one has to understand how perception
changes. Perceptions are infinitely complex. Leibniz thinks a monad has this desire to be
in a certain state. All monads are finite and hence they cannot always get what they want.
But it can get part of it. A monad may want an entirely new state but in reality, some of it
just changes and the rest stays the same.
Aggregates are things that do not have unity.
The law of continuity