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PHL217H1 (47)

Immanuel Kant

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Sol Goldberg

PHL217H1F Lecture Sep 19 th Topics Some background considerations 1.) An historically important text, but a minor in Kant’s corpus - Cf. Critique of Pure Reason A738f/B766f Reason has no dictatorial authority; reason has authority but not of a dictatorial kind. Its claim is never more than the agreement of free citizens. Each of these free citizens must be able to express his/her reservations without holding back. POPULAR AND ACADEMIC PHILOSOPHY - Distinction between a broader form of philosophy and a specialized philosophy. It relates to Kant’s idea of the public use of reason. FREEDOM OF BELIEF (CONSCIENCE) & FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION - It is seen as wrong to persecute those who want to challenge an opinion. Freedom of belief also requires freedom of expression; something which is not obvious. Kant’s “Enlightenment” 1.) Enlightenment as procedural - There is no view that enlightenment ends with leading to a revelation. 2.) Enlightenment as individual - Enlightenment is found in the individual; we often lack the courage to reason for ourselves. The vices of truth are cowardice and laziness. 3.) From the private to the public pursuit of enlightenment - It is almost inevitable that the public will enlighten itself. Every indivi
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