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University of Toronto St. George
Lana Khule

CUES NOTES – Philosophy of MIND Philosophy: Study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think. – Meanings and how they relate – What is good? The Mind MIND – is the mind distinct from the body? Can we define what it is to be conscious? What are thinking, feeling remembering, experiencing? – Giving principle reasons/arguments Two aspects of the mind: 1. The nature of the mind – 2. Personal Identity 1. The nature of the mind: what is the mind? - Substance Dualism – the mind of a non-physical thing - *Identity Theory – the mind IS the brain - *Functionalism – the mind is how the brain functions; it need not be the brain - Embodied – the mind is not just the brain; it’s the total brain/body organism - Extended Mind – some aspects of our mind are out in the world Personal Identity 2. Personal Identity – what it is to say that I am the same person I was last year – What is it that allows us to say that? - How is it that I know I’m the same person now that I was previously? - What is a person? - What do we mean by the same? The identity relation? - How do we measure or understand this as persisting in time? - Psychological Continuity o The continuity of some psychological characteristic – memories, beliefs, desires, etc. - Bodily Continuity o The continuity of one’s body – their physical make-up, etc. Philosophical Reasoning…. Argument Argument: A set of claims that relate to one another such that some of them serve to support another (others). Example: Since it’s wrong to kill a human being, it follows that abortion is wrong, because abortion takes the life of (kills) a human being. - It’s wrong to kill a human being - Abortion takes the like of a human being - Abortion is wrong Could rewrite it so that the first two are premises and the third is a conclusion Validity Validity: an argument is valid just in case it’s impossible for all of its premises to be true and yet its conclusion is false Example: If the premises are true, the conclusion MUST be true - If P then Q - P - Therefore Q Ex. If black cats bring bad luck and I have a black cat, then I’ll have bad luck
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