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Lecture 3

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De Sousa

Lecture 3 – September 25 , 2013 th PHL243 Summary of week 2 - Philosophy and Feminism: anti-essentialism - Plato and the symposium: questions about love 1. Socratic irony 2. Plato’s “signature theory” of Forms - The speeches: each reveal some aspect of live 1. Psychological effects of love (wanting to look good) 2. The bad effects, and the bad kind of love: soul/body duality 3. The mythical explanation of sex orientation, and longing 4. Desire as want=lack: love as ‘intermediate’ 5. The “recognition” of the loved one as reflecting ideal Beauty 6. Alcibiades’ ambiguous contribution, “harmonizing” opposites Aquinas and Natural Law - The key argument underlying the discussion of sex: 1. The natural function of sex is procreation; 2. Therefore any other use of sex is a misuse and a sin - This argument presupposes 2 implicit premises:  P(a): If X is sa natural function of organ O, any other use is a misuse  P(b): If U is a misuse of an organ, then it’s a sin - Sin is a religious notion. But it could be wrong to go against nature even if there was no God - Natural law perspective not necessarily tied to religious backing (God) - If a certain process has a certain function, misuse would be taking away the ability to perform its natural function/end The doctrine of double effect – about your intention Justifying P (a) - Other uses might impede the organ’s primary function - But they might actually enhance the primary function  (E.g. can adultery strengthen marriage? (a goal of “swingers”). That would make it consonant with the natural end - Or they might be neutral and facilitate other ends  E.g. riding a bicycle doesn’t impede our sense of balance An alternative first premise - Pa’ No organ has more than one natural function  But that is quite arbitrary. If sex strengthens the emotional bond between spouses, it can indirectly benefit reproduction - What does it
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