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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

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Ronniede Sousa

Twelve steps of sex/gender determination - Gamete differentiation - Chromosomes - Fetal hormones - External anatomy - Gonadal sex - Physiological reproductive functions - Hormonal influences in adolescence and adulthood - Secondary sex characteristics - Social roles in partnership, child raising - Social roles in wider social/political sphere - Gender identity and style - Sexual orientation - For Aquinas and Aristotle, god/nature made a certain number of types of things, and each of these types of things was based on a perfect model which is a “form” and of which individual humans are simply imperfect copies - We reverse this model and ask why so many individuals are similar instead of asking why some of them deviate Reasons to be skeptical of gender differences - Stereotypes may generally reflect reality, partly because they help to shape reality - Publication bias – when no difference is found, things aren’t published - Lots of evidence about cultural relativity of gender differences in expressing emotion - Many of these differences may be effects of social status – gender typical emotion correlates not with gender but with greater/lesser status and power and gender differences are just side effects of status differences More on sexual/gender diversity - Reasons for two sexes = two genders: - Two sets of gametes, large and small - Two types of sex chromosomes, XX and YY - But only gamete dimorphism is clear cut and not always, ex. Drosophila male who makes a gamete 20x its own size - Many species have three or more sexes Factors largely relevant to sex - Gametic sex – k strategy where there are few offspring, but they are well cared for vs. r strategy where there are many tries at reproduction but few survive - K strategy is like mammals; r strategy is like trees - Chromosomes – heterogametic and homogametic (XY and XX) - But male birds for example have XX and lay the eggs while females have XY - And there are XXXs, XYYs, male XXs, female XYs… - Fetal hormones determine whether the XY fetus will continue developing as a female or start developing as a male - External anatomy is controlled first by fetal hormones - Gonadal sex (ovaries, uterus) may or may not conform to external anatomy or chromosomes - Physiological reproductive functions (lactation, ejaculation, etc.) - Adolescent hormones (androgen, estrogen) - Secondary sex characteristics like facial hair, breasts - Children are conscious of their gender identity by age 18-24 months - Cross-dressing is independent of sexual identity and sexual orientation - Sexual orientation isn’t invariably tied to any of the other factors - Methodological principle – the deviant is more likely to be right about how they regard themselves than normal people The superior authenticity of deviance - The difficulty of homosexual life guaranteed that deviant sexual orientation is the more reliably authentic orientation - When
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