Class Notes (838,455)
Canada (510,888)
Philosophy (1,521)
PHL243H1 (76)
Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

4 Pages
93 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL243H1
Professor
Ronniede Sousa
Semester
Winter

Description
Twelve steps of sex/gender determination - Gamete differentiation - Chromosomes - Fetal hormones - External anatomy - Gonadal sex - Physiological reproductive functions - Hormonal influences in adolescence and adulthood - Secondary sex characteristics - Social roles in partnership, child raising - Social roles in wider social/political sphere - Gender identity and style - Sexual orientation - For Aquinas and Aristotle, god/nature made a certain number of types of things, and each of these types of things was based on a perfect model which is a “form” and of which individual humans are simply imperfect copies - We reverse this model and ask why so many individuals are similar instead of asking why some of them deviate Reasons to be skeptical of gender differences - Stereotypes may generally reflect reality, partly because they help to shape reality - Publication bias – when no difference is found, things aren’t published - Lots of evidence about cultural relativity of gender differences in expressing emotion - Many of these differences may be effects of social status – gender typical emotion correlates not with gender but with greater/lesser status and power and gender differences are just side effects of status differences More on sexual/gender diversity - Reasons for two sexes = two genders: - Two sets of gametes, large and small - Two types of sex chromosomes, XX and YY - But only gamete dimorphism is clear cut and not always, ex. Drosophila male who makes a gamete 20x its own size - Many species have three or more sexes Factors largely relevant to sex - Gametic sex – k strategy where there are few offspring, but they are well cared for vs. r strategy where there are many tries at reproduction but few survive - K strategy is like mammals; r strategy is like trees - Chromosomes – heterogametic and homogametic (XY and XX) - But male birds for example have XX and lay the eggs while females have XY - And there are XXXs, XYYs, male XXs, female XYs… - Fetal hormones determine whether the XY fetus will continue developing as a female or start developing as a male - External anatomy is controlled first by fetal hormones - Gonadal sex (ovaries, uterus) may or may not conform to external anatomy or chromosomes - Physiological reproductive functions (lactation, ejaculation, etc.) - Adolescent hormones (androgen, estrogen) - Secondary sex characteristics like facial hair, breasts - Children are conscious of their gender identity by age 18-24 months - Cross-dressing is independent of sexual identity and sexual orientation - Sexual orientation isn’t invariably tied to any of the other factors - Methodological principle – the deviant is more likely to be right about how they regard themselves than normal people The superior authenticity of deviance - The difficulty of homosexual life guaranteed that deviant sexual orientation is the more reliably authentic orientation - When
More Less

Related notes for PHL243H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit