PHL244 Lecture 2
SSSPT Operator: Socrates-says-so-Plato-thinks
2 cases where psychic conflict doesn’t suggest psychic division:
1. Where conflicting desires/emotions are directed towards different objects.
2. Where conflicting desires/emotions do not occur at the same time. (motivations can
change over time...e.g. sometimes I like sushi, sometimes I don’t like sushi)
Socrates’s Examples of Psychic Conflict
1. The thirsty person (439c)
2. Leontius (439e-440a)
3. Odysseus (441b-c)
Premise 1: If the same thing acts in opposite ways towards the same object at the same
time, it must be made up of different parts.
Premise 2: There are cases in which the same soul acts in opposite ways towards the
same object at the same time.
Conclusion: Therefore the soul must be made up of different parts.
The argument is valid. Soundness builds in validity.
A logically valid argument is one such that if the premises are true, it is logically impossi-
ble for the conclusion to be false. It is truth preserving
Come up with an example as a counter to the principle of conflict
Essay Option #1
In book 4 of the Republic Socrates argues that the human soul is complex. Explain and
assess his argument for this claim. How exactly does he reason to this conclusion? How does he support each premise? Do you think the argument is successful? Why or why
Plato’s Tripartition of the Soul
*thumos also means anger
Plato’s idea of parts in what sense of the word?
How are they distinct?
- Physical organs
- Mental activities
- Oriented desires
Physical location is not what makes thes