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Homework assignment 2.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Franz Huber

Homework assignment 2 (due October 3, 2013) The swan-hypothesisH is a universal if-then sentence and says that all swans are white. H is logically equivalent to the universal if-then sentence H’ that everything that is not white is not a swan. H is also logically equivalent to the universal if-then sentence H’’ that everything that is or is not green is not a swan or is white. The Nicod Criterion NC says that universal if-then sentences of the form “All Fs are Gs” are confirmed by their instances of the form “a is F and a is G.” The Equivalence Condition EC says that if evidence Econfirms one hypothesis F, then evidence E confirms any hypothesis Gthat is logically equivalent to F. Your evidence consists of three claims: E1 = “a is a swan and a is white”, E2= “b is not white and bis not a swan”, E3 = “(c is green or c is not green), and (c is not a swan or c is white).” Use NC and EC to show that each of the three claims E1, E2, and E3 confirms the swan-hypothesisH. (3 points) The Entailment Condition EntC says that evidence E confirms hypothesis H if evidence E logically implies hypothesisH. The Special
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