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PHL271 FEB 25.odt

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University of Toronto St. George

PHL271 FEB 25TH Reading for this week: Mill Reading for next week: Berlin (Monday) and MacKinnon (Wednesday) NEXT TEST: March 18 Tests returned during TUTORIAL What should a legal system do? JOHN STUART MILL On Liberty (1859) WHO? • Not 20 century philosopher. • However, relevant to all future societies. • Family of Utilitarian reformers People who, with this principal of utility, that this action is right when creating greatest happiness for the greatest numbers. Trying to reconfigure English society. • Childhood education ('I was never a boy') Raised in the idea to be an instrument to promote the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Be a social reformer of his time like any other. Raised by be a Utilitarian champion. • Mental Crisis of 1826 Unwinding of his mind. Began to realize he never had a life. Never had the freedom to determine what he wanted. Rebelled. Objected to the utilitarian idea that he was an instrument. • Harriet Taylor One of the leading feminist philosophers. Falls in love with her. Companionship for 21 years before her husband dies. They are shunned. Makes the idea that the popular opinion can be tyrannical • Mill's Political Career. Tries to promote number of progressive approaches. Gender equality. However not successful. THE OLD THREAT TO LIBERTY • The meaning of liberty in the ancient world: 306 Liberty -> Protection against tyranny of political rulers • Threat to liberty Aruler might use power to pursue his/her own self-interest rather than the common interest of the ruled. PHL271 FEB 25TH • SOLUTION (pp 307-8) Create democratic societies. Problems with the ancient models is the fact there are rulers. No guarantee that the ruler will exercise power in the way that it will be beneficial to the ruled. The soluti
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