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KANT 314.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Margaret Morrison

KANT 314 Sept 23, 2013 Antinomies are a bridge btw Analytic (framework - concepts and principles) and dialectic (reformulation of metaphysics) Point of Critique of PR: -to delineate limits of reasons -and where and how reason plays a role -Kant believes reason has hereto run amok because it has tried to make sense of things it can't ANTINOMIES are product/conclusion of argument first look at conclusion then look at premises (what we get from intuition, understanding--> two are brought together to give us synthetic a priori principles) -transcendental idealism only way to establish principles Main argument: 1. why transcendental realism is incoherent 2. why transcendental idealism is awesome Kant: TR and TI only 2 possibilities for human understanding and reason so if one is true, other is false. if can show TR incoherent, TI is the obvious correct one 2 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive because: TI: Kant's TR: everyone else (including rationalism, empiricism) assumes there is a starting point for knowledge that is a thing in itself i.e. Berkeley - all knowledge is perceptions/ideas so to be is to be perceived so if Berekely the idea is the ultimate constituent i.e.: For Hume - the impression is the ultimate constituent no knowledge without impression all TR assumes a thing in itself that forms the ultimate constituent for knowledge Barkeley thinks it's knowable because perceive ideas in the mind. God responsible for placing those ideas in the mind. What kind of rationalist or empiricist you are depends on whether or not you believe in god. TR: either 1. material idealist, i.e.: sceptic. cannot guarantee that perceptions correspond to ideas. 2. good guarantees truth and knowledge, i.e.: Descartes Kant is a formal idealist idealist about epistemic conditions being an idealist about epistemic conditions enables you to be an idealist about. relation btw things we experience and conditions that make it possible for us to experience i.e.: tree falls and no one hears it, it still made a sound whether or not it made the sound depends on scientific principles, on conditions Kant: all knowledge is knowledge of the phenomenon not like phenomenalism like Leibniz or Merleau-Ponty (phenomenon in head) for Kant, phenomenon is actually knowledge of empirical things Possible experience vs actual experience possible experience determined by space, time and the categories actual experience gives us truth values. Kant - knowledge not contingent on actual experience actual experience helps determine if smthng true/false possible experience helps us determine if it's possible for a judgment to have a truth value given that we were in the right situations to determine it's true/false i.e.: so judgments of monads cannot be given truth value COSMOLOGICAL IDEAS Kant's ideas about the universe: -not scientific (Big Bang, etc.); is there an ultimate constituent of matter (subatomic particles, etc.) -what caused the Big Bang? -what caused the thing that caused the Big Bang? infinite regress to what started time/space Kant's idea: -the absolute origin of the universe (time, space, physics, quantum theory, gravity) -that series of questions (what was the ultimate cause of the Big Bang) is incoherent because assumes we can answer that question -thinks we cannot answer what started time and space -we think we can answer this question because we have the mistaken notion that there is "the universe - some co
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