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Cheating (Jan 31).docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL376H1
Professor
T.J.Berry

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CHEATING Inferior win by, Dixon lists: referee error, cheating, gamesmanship, bad luck, off day Cheating in a game: Dixon: if intentionally violates its rules for advantage while attempting to escape  detection and punishment  *Deception not a component Gert: iff intentionally violates its public rules for x’s own advantage or for the advantage  of those for whom x is concerned (P.55) Simon: iff intentionally violates the system of its rules that every participant may  reasonably assume will govern the game in order to obtain benefits for x, x’s teammates,  or others for whom x is concerned (P.56) Externalism The view that the source of the ethical principles/ values appealed to in the regulation of  sport come from the outside conception of sport Marxism—reflection of a capitalist society placing heavy weight on winning.  Utilitarianism—apply social utilitarianism to condemn cheating Ethical Egoism—Whatever B does, As chances are enhanced by cheating. B reasons                                   same way, fostering an arms race amongst cheaters. Kantian—concept of duties, applying to sport participants, ought to be dutiful, so  cheating is ruled out o Athletic contest, x cant win without breaking rules, but is it not unlawful and  contrary to duty to gain advantage in this way?  o This maxim can never be a universal law be self­ consistent, but must necessarily  contradict itself.  ­ Everyone at a disadvantage in a contest could secretly break the rules,  make athletic contests and their purpose impossible  ­ No one would enter a contest in which others intentionally break the rules  for advantage, resulting fair competitive contests as a sham Internalism The view that the values/ principles appealed to in regulation of sport is derivable from  our conception of sport (mutual quest for excellence through contest) Formalism (Suits) The formal rules govern the sport and make cheating unacceptable. ­ Sport is rule­governed, rules of the game constitute the game, cheating is  intentional violation of these rules. So the cheater isn’t playing the game.  The Logical Incompatibility Thesis Argument 1. To play a game, one must follow its rules (LI: Rules define the game) 2. To win a game, one must play it 3. Cheaters don’t follow the rules 4. So cheaters don’t play the game (they make a pretence of playing) 5. So cheaters don’t/ can’t win the game (they make a pretence of playing) CHEATING Problems: a. Insufficient to address moral problems—insufficient guidance: ­ Clubless golfer (refer Simon) b. Strategic fouling govern an implausible understanding (does intentional fouling in  basketball mean that one is not playing the game?) c. Difficulty accounting for rule change Conventionalism  (Lehman) The conventional practices of the particular game govern the sport and make  cheating unacceptable ­ Spitball Account ­ Distinction between essential rules of game and those (accidental) rules that are  not within the framework of the set of rules ­ Sportsmanship transcends the rules ­ Recognize that sports are flexible social practises, so we should follow those  social practises Problem:  a. Insufficient to address moral problems—insufficient guidance: ­ There are no conventions regarding what to do when the competitor  participate without a club a. Difficulty accounting f
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