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January 31 Lecture Notes

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January 31 2012 PHL376 NOTES Cheating Simon following GertCheating is best identified with the intentional violation of a public system of rules to secure the goals of that system for oneself or for those about whom one is concernedExternalism and InternalismIs the ethics of sport simply expressive of the values of the wider society or do the principles of sport have a degree of independence from those social valuesExternalism about the ethics of sport is the view that sport is not a fundamental source of ethical principles or valuesInternalism about the ethics of sport is the view that key values in sport are not mere reflections of values popular or dominant in the society and that these values can at least in part be supported by ethically defensible conceptions or interpretations of competition is sports Simon 46 Externalismthe overemphasis on winning eg NHL shootouts a NeoMarxist Account b Play Theorist Account c Radical Feminist Account On each account given by Hundley the overemphasis on winning occurs because sport simply expresses and so perpetuates the values of wider society such as winningKantianismA man finds himself engaged in an athletic contest in which victory is very important to him He well knows that he will not be able to win without breaking some rules but he sees too that the contest will not be completed unless the participants are held to be abiding by the rules He is inclined to secretly break the rules to gain advantage but he has enough conscience to ask Is it not unlawful and contrary to duty to gain advantage in this way How would things stand if my maxim became a universal law I then see straightaway that this maxim can never rank as a universal law of nature and be selfconsistent but must necessarily contradict itself For the universality of a law that everyone believing himself at a disadvantage in a contest could secretly break the rules would make athletic contests and
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