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PHL100 – Lec 2 11-09-26 7:21 PM
What is philosophy?
• basic fundamental questions & answers (ex. When is it permissible to
kill another person? When can we refer to cannibalism? How are we
suppose to live?
• questions that have to do with principles.
• religious beliefs address basic fundamental questions
• tries to give answers to the questions mostly by appeal to reason and
• philosophy is the activity of trying to think your way down to the
bottom of questions that do with the business of living our lives
• APPEAL TO REASON
• It’s just as important to know how you got to the answer
• Socrates questioned elder’s reason for their beliefs and points of views
• By doing this he was charged “corrupted the youth” because he
supposedly taught the youth to disrespect the elders.
• No matter how many people believe in something doesn’t make it
anymore true or right, numbers are irrelevant to justification.
• If there are experts, pay attention to experts.
• If there aren’t experts or experts disagree, you try to reason your way
• What make something more philosophical is reasoning.
• Reasoning is not unique to philosophy, it is applied to other practices such
as physics, mathematics and other sciences. But all those practices are
part of philosophy, it all started from philosophy.
• Philosophy is the central sun.
• We use logic and reasoning on things in which we don’t know how to
make progress. (ex. Finding a cure)
• Philosophy covers the difficult if not insoluble matters remain a part of
• Most of the other disciplines started out as bits and pieces of philosophy.
• Two consequences: (a) other kinds of intellectual endeavor can be
called back to philosophy as needs be; (b) the difficult if not
insoluble matters remain a part of philosophy.
• Some set of interrelated questions to which the answers are sufficiently
well-behaved, where we know how to go on, are spun off as more or less
autonomous intellectual disciplines.