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Lecture 15

PHL200Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Sparknotes, Horse Training


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL200Y1
Professor
Lloyd Gerson
Lecture
15

Page:
of 3
Euthyphro)
)
Greek)Words)
LOGOS%‐%any%unit%of%intelligible%discourse.%%The%clarity%of%a%claim,%the%logic%of%its%reasons,%and%the%
effectiveness%of%its%supporting%evidence.%%%
EIDOS%–%Form.%%
PARADIGMA%‐%Models%on%which%were%patterned%the%things%of%the%phenomenal%world.%%
APORIA%‐%No%way%through.%%A%theoretical%difficulty%or%puzzle.%
PATHOS%–%An%emotional%or%motivational%appeal;%vivid%language,%emotional%language%and%
numerous%sensory%details.%%%
OUSIA%–%The%essence%of%something.%%Plato%uses%it%as%a%term%for%an%entity%which%has%a%defined%
nature.%
THEOS%–%God.%
%
Background)
Socrates%is%being%charged%with%corrupting%the%youth%by%inventing%new%Gods%and%not%
acknowledging%the%old%ones.%%It%is%a%charge%of%impiety.%%Euthyphro%is%about%to%indict%his%father%for%
murder%on%the%grounds%that%it%is%a%pious%thing%to%do.%%His%father%tied%up%a%day%laborer%after%he%
got%drunk%and%murdered%one%of%their%household%slaves.%%His%father%sent%for%the%authorities%but%
before%they%heard%word%back%the%day%laborer%died.%%Socrates%points%out%that%the%act%of%bringing%
his%father%to%trial%may%be%impious.%%The%dialogue%is%about%Socrates%challenging%Euthyphro%to%
produce%a%LOGOS%of%piety%so%that%they%can%properly%judge%a%pious%act%from%an%impious%act.%%%%%
%
The)Argument))
E%=%Euthyphro%
S%=%Socrates%%
E:%Piety%is%what%I’m%doing%now:%prosecuting%those%that%do%injustice.%%Not%prosecuting%them%is%
impious.%%%
S:%There%are%many%other%things%which%we%can%call%pious.%%What%is%the%model%we%use%to%measure%
how%pious%or%impious%something%is?%%%
E:%What%is%loved%by%the%God’s%is%pious.%%
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S:%%
Points%out%that%E%previously%said%that%piety%was%the%opposite%of%impiety.%%%
God’s%similar%to%people%would%never%disagree%about%how%tall%something%is%as%you%could%
simply%measure%it%to%determine%who%was%right.%%What%people%normally%disagree%about%is%
what%is%unjust,%shameful,%good%and%not%good.%%%
Thus,%if%one%God%loves%a%thing%and%another%God%hates%it%then%it%would%be%a%pious%and%
impious%thing%at%the%same%time.%%This%contradicts%E’s%previous%claim%that%piety%and%
impiety%are%opposites.%%%
E:%No%God’s%would%argue%about%someone%being%punished%after%unjustly%killing%another%
S:%God’s%similar%to%men%likely%disagree%about%which%actions%are%just%or%not%just.%%%
E:%%Only%what%all%the%God’s%love%is%pious%and%only%what%all%the%God’s%hate%is%impious.%%%
S:%%
Is%the%pious%loved%by%the%gods%because%it’s%pious?%%Or%is%it%pious%because%it’s%loved?%%%
A%thing%is%loved%because%it’s%pious,%not%pious%because%it’s%loved%‐>%what’s%Godloved%is%
loved%because%the%God’s%love%it.%%‐>%Then%the%god‐loved%is%not%what’s%pious%nor%is%the%
pious%what’s%god‐loved.%%%
E%hasn’t%explained%what%determines%it’s%being%loved.%
The%spark%notes%break%down%helped%me%understand%this%argument%a%bit%better.%%It’s%
below:%
“Euthyphro's%most%important%attempt%to%define%holiness%comes%with%his%suggestion%that%what%is%
holy%is%what%is%approved%of%by%all%the%gods.%Socrates%sets%up%a%rather%elaborate%argument%to%
show%that%the%two%cannot%be%equivalent.%What%is%holy%gets%approved%of%by%the%gods%because%it%is%
holy,%so%what%is%holy%determines%what%gets%approved%of%by%the%gods.%And%what%gets%approved%of%
by%the%gods%in%turn%determines%what%is%approved%of%by%the%gods.%It%follows%from%this%reasoning%
that%what%is%holy%cannot%be%the%same%thing%as%what%is%approved%of%by%the%gods,%since%one%of%
these%two%determines%what%gets%approved%of%by%the%gods%and%the%other%is%determined%by%what%
gets%approved%of%by%the%gods.”%
E:%Suggests%that%piety%is%a%part%of%justice.%%He%breaks%justice%into%two%parts:%Tending%to%other%
humans%and%tending%to%the%Gods.%%The%part%that%tends%to%the%God’s%is%what%piety%is.%%
S:%What%does%tending%to%the%God’s%mean?%%Ie.%Horse%training%is%expertise%in%tending%to%horses.%%
Usually%all%types%of%tending%result%in%some%good%or%benefit%to%what%is%being%attended%to.%%It%can’t%
be%that%the%God’s%need%to%be%made%better%from%tending.%%%
E:%It’s%similar%to%a%slave%tending%to%their%master.%
S:%Seems%to%be%about%providing%a%service%similar%to%how%doctors%provide%a%service%that%aims%to%
produce%health.%%What%service%do%the%God’s%aim%for?%%%
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E:%Ignores%question%and%highlights%that%pious%actions%are%those%that%are%pleasing%to%the%God’s%
like%prayer%and%sacrifice.%%
S:%Piety%on%this%account%would%be%knowing%how%to%ask%from%the%God’s%and%how%to%give%to%them.%%
Asking%in%the%right%way%would%be%asking%for%the%things%people%need%from%the%God’s.%%Giving%
would%be%giving%the%God’s%things%they%needed%from%us.%%What%benefits%would%the%God’s%get%from%
the%gifts%we%provide%them?%
E:%God’s%can’t%be%benefited%by%anything%we%give%them.%%Instead%they%would%want%it%because%it%is%
pleasurable%to%them.%
S:%So…piety%is%pleasing%to%the%God’s%but%it’s%not%beneficial%to%them%or%loved%by%them?%
E:%No,%it’s%the%most%loved%of%all.%
S:%Must%be%wrong%as%we%have%already%figured%out%that%piety%is%not%the%same%as%god‐loved.%%
)
Prof)Notes)
Main%Question:%How%can%you%know%what%you%are%doing%is%pious%or%impious?%%
Both%S%and%E%agree%that%piety%has%objective%qualities.%%Simply%providing%the%dictionary%
definition%of%piety%or%one’s%own%concept%of%piety%will%not%be%sufficient.%%
Need%a%LOGOS%of%piety.%%Need%a%way%to%have%a%litmus%test%for%pious%actions%so%we%can%
properly%judge%them.%
S%is%asking%E%for%a%LOGOS(rational%arguments)%of%the%EIDOS(form)%for%piety%!%A%
Paradigma%(way%to%model%it)%
S%is%not%claiming%that%you%can’t%do%a%pious%act%without%providing%a%LOGOS.%%You%could%
merely%get%lucky.%%Nor%is%he%saying%that%if%you%can%give%a%LOGOS%that%you%would%always%
do%a%pious%act.%%%
Having%a%definition%of%piety%is%not%the%same%as%knowing%what%it%is%%
S%is%trying%to%“clear%the%dead%wood”%so%E%can%see%that%his%definition%of%piety%is%not%
founded%on%rational%beliefs.%%If%you%don’t%believe%you%are%ignorant%why%would%you%
change?%%
Even%if%S%could%give%a%definition%of%piety%it%would%likely%fall%on%deaf%ears.%
To%say%someone%is%excellent%we%would%need%a%LOGOS%of%what%is%excellent%%
Forms%are%not%concepts%
If%all%the%God’s%loved%pious%things%we%would%have%a%PATHOS%!%Like%an%antibody%to%a%
virus%
Conclusion:%E’s%reasoning%and%argument%will%never%produce%a%LOGOS%of%piety%
%
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