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PHL200Y1 Lecture Notes - Wiht, Essenes

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Jennifer Whiting

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Phl200 aristotle
february 14th 2013
the soul
The soul is the form and the essene of the body
kind of body hes talking about is a living body, alive recieve locomote reproduce and so on
the body as matter not as flesh blood bones, talking about something that has in itself its own
principle of motion and rest
uses example fo the eye and living things 4.12 b
have to decide in what genus soul belongs
whether its this in a substance or a quality or a quantity, the osul is a substance
organized these things into form and matter
body-matter- hule
animal plant compound
matter as the substance of all things only makes sense if talking aobut living bodies
soul is cause of being what it is a living body depends on existence of the soul
soul is the more causally relative factor in explaining nature of plant or animal
primary name to be called substance
theres a way in which we can be talking about just the animal, sometimes in soul sometimes in
not too seperate things here
shouldnt ask if soul and body are one, anymore than the wax and the seal or the matter in which
the thing is matter
one and being our spoken of in certain ways are fully one
thinking about the wax and the seal and stamp something into it
could be thinking about wax, cant have seal without impression
cant have matter wihtout soul in it—
this body and this soul neither can exist apart
analogies which arent quite right, or irrelevent
instrument, axe or natural body then being an axe would be its substance
substance associated with the categories
more what the thing is then an animal does
substance tied closly wih being an ultimate subject
being an axe would be its substance, soul would be this
makes htis comparison—this substance would no longer be an axe except homonomously
homonomously—name of the axe, being contraste wiht synonymy (axe in name and
definition)--something which is essential to beign an axe except in name
in fact however, its an axe, just an axe, unliving thing
if hte eye were an animal sight would be its soul
sight is the substance corresponding to the account
apply this point
apply this now to the whole body
mere potentiality
to become a percieving and knowing thing
first actualtiy
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case where you actually can percieve, you are a perccieving thing, aaquired a kind of
knowledge but not always using that knowledge, already know but not always exercising
2nd actuality
using perception or knowledge, having capacity to percieve and to know—having capacity,
while first actuality a kind of potentiality
baby a potential knower but can already percieve
can exercercise the potential in a way but not a knower
once you learn mathematics or greek using 2nd actuality
baby a living hting can percieve, soul first actuality of the body
the seed not a living thing but can become one
atleast an embryo, or hear tin blooded animals
once have embryo with sensation you have an animal body
got the animal actually alive—embryo a living animal or thing, not always exercising but
capable fo it but by time its born, capacity to percieve not to know
in chapter 2 we talk about what living is
identifies living with
locomoting and resting
nourishing one self
^ all things belonging to human animals
percieving gives us the animal
animals nourish them selves they grown and decay but so do plants
if a creature has one of these things tis said to be alive
having any one of these means your alive
if gods have only one of these than theyre alive
he doesnt say everything nourishes itself, but says nothing that has no share of life is nourished
skim over rest of that chapter, repeats account of soul aquiring htat body
predeccessors wrong about thinking of soul without a body (aka pyth and plato wrong)
end of hcapter three says the higher things imply the lower ones
some animals live by appearance while others lack it
fantasia, imagination
theoretical intellect requires a different account—a different kind of soul existing on its own
very cautious of what to say here, thinks it exists on its own
some hybrids that are sterile, all living things belonging to complete kinds have the natural
desire to produce same thing as itself—babies
desire for immortality
individual animal ant exist as the individual it is forever but can be immortal in form or kind
after making htis point he talks about the soul being a cause in 3 different ways
what is the souls formal cause of the animal--?
Shape of parts and their relationships, ie 2 eyes, walking onj 2, etc
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