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Lecture 16

PHL200Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Sophist, Demagogue


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL200Y1
Professor
Peter King
Lecture
16

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31st%October%2017
Phaedrus%
Is%about%philosophy%
The%first%theme%is%concerned%with%the%nature%of%love,%by%three%speeches
First%speech%of%Lysias%recited%by%Phaedrus,%the%other%given%by%Socrates
The%second%is%nominally%about%rhetoric%itself
First%part%of%the%dialogue
The%form%of%traditional%love%is%not%discussed%here%but%rather%an%older%successful%
and%influential%man%taking%on%a%young%boy%as%his%companion
The%man%gets%physical%pleasure,%but%the%boy%is%not%supposed%to%enjoy%it,%
but%gets%initiated%into%adulthood,%especially%in%politics%where%he%is%the%
older%man's%proté
The%pederastic%practices%were%a%kind%of%sex-based%mentor%system%
Lysias's%Speech
Declares%that%the%boy%in%a%pederastic%relation%should%align%himself%with%an%older%
man%who%does%not%love%him%rather%than%one%who%does.
A%lover%would%be%jealous%and%look%to%his%own%interests%rather%than%the%
boy's%interests,%such%"love"%is%founded%on%superficial%traits%rather%than%
acquaintance%with%the%boy's%character.
Love%relationships%tend%to%end%badly
Plato%says%Lysias's%speech%tries%to%reconstrue%the%relation%contractual,%ignoring%
the%force%of%eros%
Socrates's%First%speech
Socrates%begins%by%pointing%out%a%need%for%a%definition%of%Eros
"Desire%for%the%beautiful"%is%too%broad%since%people%not%in%love%may%desire%the%
beautiful
We%are%ruled%by%2%principles:
Inborn%desire%for%pleasure
Acquired%judgment%that%pursues%what%is%best%
We%the%two%principles%are%at%odds,%and%judgement%prevails,%then%it%is%an%
instance%of%self-control
But%desire%for%pleasure%prevails,%we%have%an%instance%of%excess.
Socrates's%Second%speech
Socrates%begins%in%something%like%the%same%way%as%in%his%First%Speech;%an%
account%of%"love",%but%one%that%tries%to%respect%its%power.
Socrates%maintains%love%is%kind%og%madness,%but%what%kind%of%madness?
Socrates%distinguished%human%madness%from%"divine%madness"
Prophecy
Purificatory
Inspiration
Love
Nature%of%soul
Every%soul%is%immortal,%for%it%is%the%nature%of%soul%to%be%a%self%mover,%therefore%it%
has%no%beginning%and%no%end
The%origin%of%its%motion%is%itself.
Two%winged%horses%driven%by%a%charioteer,%in%divine%souls%the%charioteer%and%the%
horses%are%each%good,%but%in%human%souls,%one%of%the%horses%are%bad,%making%
the%team%difficult%to%control
The%charioteer%is%reason,%the%good%horse%is%spirit%(concerned%with%shame),%
and%the%bad%horse%is%desire%
The%nature%of%a%wing%is%to%rise%upward%to%what%is%divine,%(which%has%
beauty,%wisdom,%goodness%and%everything%which%nourish%the%soul's%wings)%
and%they%shrink%and%disappear%in%their%absence%or%the%presence%of%their%
contraries%
Within%Plato's%myth,%Zeus%leads%all% gods%and%divine%spirits%to%a%tour%around%the%
rim%of%heavens%over%which%the%Forms%may%be%seen.%But%human%souls%can%barely%
keep%up%because%they%only%occasionally%rise%high%enough%to%see%the%rim.
As%a%result,%human%souls%often%drop%lower%and%lower,%forgetting%the%
visions%above,%until%they%fall%into%bodies
Plato%says%depending%on%how%much%of%the%Truth%it%has%seen,%a%soul%
becomes%incarnate%in%1%of%9%types%of%people
Philosophers1.
Rulers2.
Politicians%or%business%executives3.
Athlete,%trainer%or%physicians4.
Prophet5.
Poet6.
Artisan7.
Sophists%or%demagogue8.
Tyrants%9.
Aside%from%philosophers,%all%of%the%above%%will%remain%in%the%world.
Philosophers%can%regain%its%wings%because%they%have%the%ability%to%
recollect% enough%of%his%vision%of%true%reality%(triggered%by%his%
recognition%of%beauty),%to%become%more%divine
§
Plato%mains%that%human%souls%are%capable%of%being%spurred%to%recollect%the%
Forms,%which%puts%them%in%direct%contact%with%reality.
Failing%to%dwell%in%the%Form%is%to%forget%them%and%eventually%the%cause%of%the%fall%
into%the%body,%which%are%not%properly%human%until%shaped%by%contact%with%the%
Forms.
Lecture'16
Tuesday,% October% 31,%2017
12:21%PM
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