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AP - February 1st, 2012 - De Anima 2.pdf

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Lloyd Gerson

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Ancient Philosophy 12-03-04 9:14 PM
Lecture 8
February 1st, 2012
De Anima Continued
Book 1
o To live a human life, you need to do things that a human
does. These are in relation to second actualizing, where birth
satisfies first actualization.
o The soul is not separable from the body because it is the first
actuality of a body, if it were separate, it wouldn’t be the
actuality of the body, but it would be an actuality of its own
and the body would need its own actuality.
o Can the soul survive the destruction of the body? No, because
that’s what it is, the actuality of the body.
o Plato: Our soul has parts, one of which is immortal, and
others are mortal, the intellect is the immortal part of the
! Doesn’t believe the whole soul is mortal.
o Aristotle: Using the soul differently from Plato, he also says
that the intellect is immortal, that it is a genus different from
! When I say soul is mortal, I’m not talking about
intellect, the mortality of the soul for Aristotle is equal
to Plato’s part of the soul.
o Disagreement: Is the Intellect (A) or the Rational part of the
Soul (P) me?
! This is where the two disagree.
! Intellect for Aristotle is different from Plato’s definition,
since intellect for Aristotle is not part of the soul.
Book 2/3:
o Aristotle with concerned with cognition of animals vs. what we
call higher cognition for humans
o The core of Aristotle’s Epistemology
! Focus on the first eight chapter of Book three of De
Anima with a little bit from Book two about sense

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o The starting point for all cognition in animals is sense-
perception (Aisthesis)
! The activity we engage in with out five senses
! Aristotle doesn’t think we have more or less than five
! The key idea here, “Aristotelian Realism”, is that our
encounter with the world is a direct perception of the
accidental attributes of individual substances.
! The individual substance is limited to its Accidental
Attributes that are present in it previously as potential
! When we encounter an AA (accidental attribute) with SP
(sense perception), it’s the form that causes you to
sense, and so in SP it’s the form that becomes in you.
! Ex: How are we able to recall a national anthem in our
" Aristotle’s Explanation, The form of the melody is
in you without the matter. If the matter were
there, then you would be hearing it.
" You could never have originally had the form
without the matter, ex: recalling an anthem
without it being played to you once before
" Aristotle’s Claim: The form that is in you is not a
representation, a copy, or a symbol. It really is
the thing, formally.
" When we encounter the world, we really cognize
it, there isn’t something between us and the
world, a fog or curtain, in sense perception we
really internalize the world, formally.
! An individual AA present in a substance, are the
actualization of a substance
" The individual substance is an actualization of a
" In a way the IAA is two removes, degrees, away
from the species.
" Linking the Categories with Physics: I get
knowledge of species by observing the AAs
of Individual substances, what we want to do
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