I promise: in a performative, saying makes it so, so what does i consent make so, wertheimer"s suggestion. You have a duty to refrain from doing certain things (touching, walking into someone"s house) Failing of this duty you are morally and legally liable. Once consent : defeaters: threats vs. promises. If you are threatened with being made worse off than you would normally be, unless you consent: this clearly nullifies consent. I will give you a lower grade than you deserve. I will give you a higher grade than you deserve. I will repay the money i owe you. I will arrange your escape (from jail, e. g. aw"s verdict: there is coercion in 1, 3, 5 and not 2, 4, 6: not necessarily dependent on threat vs. promise; coercion is what is important. The power imbalance : a has power over s with respect to action b if and only if a can intentionally get.