PHL244H1 Lecture Notes - Validity, Odysseus, Soundness
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PHL244 Lecture 2
SSSPT Operator: Socrates-says-so-Plato-thinks
2 cases where psychic conflict doesn’t suggest psychic division:
1. Where conflicting desires/emotions are directed towards different objects.
2. Where conflicting desires/emotions do not occur at the same time. (motivations can
change over time...e.g. sometimes I like sushi, sometimes I don’t like sushi)
Socrates’s Examples of Psychic Conflict
1. The thirsty person (439c)
2. Leontius (439e-440a)
3. Odysseus (441b-c)
Premise 1: If the same thing acts in opposite ways towards the same object at the same
time, it must be made up of different parts.
Premise 2: There are cases in which the same soul acts in opposite ways towards the
same object at the same time.
Conclusion: Therefore the soul must be made up of different parts.
The argument is valid. Soundness builds in validity.
A logically valid argument is one such that if the premises are true, it is logically impossi-
ble for the conclusion to be false. It is truth preserving
Come up with an example as a counter to the principle of conflict
Essay Option #1
In book 4 of the Republic Socrates argues that the human soul is complex. Explain and
assess his argument for this claim. How exactly does he reason to this conclusion? How
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