first lec

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Published on 21 Jan 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL265H1
Professor
Page:
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A priori can be synthetic and analytic
A posteriori synthetic.
Synthetic knowledge is after the expereince the type of knowledge is synthetic if the world
changes than the knowledge will be false.
When you ask yourself how is the world it gives you science, and it has a scheme which
organizes your experience and knowledge. When you act you engage in practical reasoning.
A way you can tell if its a priori is if you make judgmenets of the necessity. It happens to be
true. Other types of empirical beliefs you take them as necessary true. For ex. Interior
angles of a triangle is 180 degrees. But it could be not true in a different world.
We compare our future with the present, so how do we know what happenes in the possible
world. Jugdments are not only about the world we live in but also the possible world of
things that could happen. A priori - judgments of necessity. All judgements of causality
support incidents.
A posteriori- from experience.
Modality- reasoning on how to act.
Deonticmodality - they are about ways that we mobilize actions.
Moral philisophy of Deontology - Denot means duty.
Draw a analogy from the necessity function and obligation funtion in governeing our
conduct.
Obligation is the practical equivalent of necessity.
N = necessary = apodictic
P = Possible = problematic
I =Impossible
This is called alethic.
O = Obligatory - you have to do it
P = permissible - you may do it
F = Forbidden - you may not do it.
A particular action is onligatory, it is not persmissible to not perform the action. You are not
allowed to not do it.
All you can get from experience is how things could happen. Obligatory- just looking at how
someone acts it could just be the habit or the costume. The judgment of Obligatoriness are
to strong to derive from expereince they have to be a priori judgements because you have to
do it just by thinking about it.
Reason is not always in control. Reason gives orders.
www.notesolution.com
Hypothetical Imperative - make references to consequences to the world. If you want to
achieve x than you should do y. Reason adresses the form of hyportheical questions. If i stop
wanting something than reason changes gears and wants something else. Reason can
recomand anything depending on wants.
Categorical Imperative - sometimes reasons take a different action. Reason speaks in a
imperative voice and says you should do x. There are social norms that have cateogrical X.
They tell you what you should do. Categorical is acting on rules. Sometimes we act because
the action is required.
The difference between the two is not the grammatical form. Its not the sentence of the
form. What matters is
After actions we have conseqeuences, there are two ways. Is when you reason back to your
action from its consequences which is hypotheical. Than you ask if the action itself is the
qualities, that does not appeal to consqences.. So it how its structured. The differenece
between conseqeunces and action is action you have control over, consequences are things
that we dont have control over.
Hypothetical is probability
Caterogrical is you can do it. No questioning the conseqeunces.
Necessary/ possibility / actuality ( whats true in the real world)
Judgments of the necessarity is that you cannot imaging a possible world that is not true.
Judgements of possibility is that there is a world that could be true. Its possible that in
another world something could be false.
Actuality is its true at our world.
Kant uses this schema to use to structure the different imperatives.
There are two species of hypothetical imperatives which is possibility - techinically rules-
rules of skills, adopt a possible end. If you want to build a sail boat here is how you do it. If
you want to get on the internet this is how you do it. Rules of skill. You are not saying you
want to get on something, if you wanted to than here is how its done. Hypothetical
imperative in the possible world, not the real world. Rules of skills is the end that you may
have not do have. This is technically knowledge.
Actuality- people have all kinds of ends, one of the ends that we do have is happiness. We
have a body of knoweldge which isnt techincally, we have a collection of practicle wisdom
that tells us to happy. All of ancient actions a council of prudence- rules on how to be happy.
Hypothetical imperatives on how to lead a good life. They are contingent. You can ignore
the imperative, there is nothing that makes the purpose obligatory.
www.notesolution.com
Categorical - correspondes to necessity. A necessary end. This corresponds to morality. A
particular action is not required of something else, it is required as such. You know that we
have to do certain things like not killing but that cannot be based on consequences or
experience. You cant get obligation on things that are contiengent. It must come from
reason. Which imposes a structure of the world. Our minds impose order into the world. The
order that one can act in such a way of universial law. Act only in the accordance of the
maxim that it can be the univserial law. First formation!
"everything in nature works in accordance to law, only a rational being acts in accordance to
the concpetion of law, having a will" - act in the basis of a law.
Laws are not in nature, the judgments we mnake about natural laws are all mobilize.
If its not sometihing we can will as something everyone can do than you are acting in
contigent desire. y
We need god - it is in order to avoid that we make up a god to make sure that good
consequences with good actions. Kants arguments of morality is morality is the foundation
that provides a an argument for religion.
The kinds of reason for actions we have, the reasons of actions we have come in two forms
Theoretical realm and practical realm
www.notesolution.com

Document Summary

Synthetic knowledge is after the expereince the type of knowledge is synthetic if the world changes than the knowledge will be false. When you ask yourself how is the world it gives you science, and it has a scheme which organizes your experience and knowledge. When you act you engage in practical reasoning. A way you can tell if its a priori is if you make judgmenets of the necessity. Other types of empirical beliefs you take them as necessary true. Interior angles of a t riangle is 180 degrees. But it could be not true in a different world. We compare our future with the present, so how do we know what happenes in the possible world. Jugdments are not only about the world we live in but also the possible world of things that could happen. Deonticmodality - they are about ways that we mobilize actions. Moral philisophy of deontology - denot means duty.