PHL275H1 Lecture Notes - Modus Ponens

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Published on 5 Oct 2011
Ethics Lecture
September 28, 2011
You can take pleasure in the wrong things
Upbringing has a lot to do in whether you know what you’re
doing is the right thing
The thinks that there are some objectively good things but
doesn’t think that they are universal
You can’t acquire virtues just by trying hard even if you have the
right upbringing; it takes external goods [goods separate from
body and soul that you have no control over] that it takes to
acquire virtue [wealth will be one way]
Friends are an external good as well because they are the most
necessary external good for developing virtue [highest friends
are virtue friends]
You learn virtue by practicing habits of doing things at the right
time and you learn virtue by studying virtuous people hence
virtue friends
Golden Mean
All our dispositions occur on a spectrum
Virtue is about hitting the correct mean between an excess and a
deficiency of a disposition
Virtues of character are responsive to reason; the middle is
bravery, one extreme is cowardice and the other is rashness
Another virtue of character is generosity; the extremes are
frugality and wastefulness
There is no rule by which you can recognize what the mean is
and when you’ve hit it; the best is to hang around with the
virtuous people
The Practical Syllogism
Modus ponens; major premise [universal] and minor premise
Three Lives to Choose from
Gratification: is most choice worthy to the excellent person
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