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Lecture Note Mar 4

Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

of 1
PHL285: How to Read Images on Screen
real author: individual responsible for words on page
construct author: dont have to know author, merely from reading the text (multiple author texts)
narrator/narrative discourse: the person presentating/describing the story (omniscent character, little or
a lot of personality)
story event as narrated: order in which events are presented
“the story”: sequence of events in order, the overall plot from start to end
contextualism: meaning of x is derived from its context
Italian Neorealism
- assumption 1: one directly in touch with screen/frame life-liike, ghost with camera, naieve reading of
role of spectator as invisible and ignored
- constructed audience: the intended audience; individuals work was made for
- real audience: the actual audience
S Claim:
- movies do not have narrator, almost always voice overs are the exception
- no narrator explains why movies have real prescence caused by lack of mediator; straight up
unfiltered story
- King: we do not actually have direct access to the information
- weak contextualism: event occurs, of which its significance is only revealed later
- strong contextualism: not possible to read off sequence of events; they must be placed in a context; no
absolute, stand alone meaning in film events don't have a meaning that is totally plain based on their
presentation - understanding only complete within its full context furthermore there is no plain
meaning to get instance of understanding flips, which can happen at any time; all isolated scenes
cannot have directly know meaning without context
- dont know how to read screen, we usually just get lucky and so we do not normlly need to question
- realism: set of assumptions brought to what one sees