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Lecture 1- Realism and Pacifism Sept 10 2009?

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Tom Hurka

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PHL378: War & Morality
Lecture #1: Realism and Pacifism
Sept, 10th, 2009
Ius ad Bellum (Resort to War)
! ius: right, ad: concerning, bellum: war
Ius in Bello (means of fighting war)
! just cause does not necessarily equal a just war
! no act in war is morally wrong
! moral concepts don't apply to war
! all is fair in love and war”
! you cannot act wrongly in war and concepts of fairness does not apply
! this is a negative thesis
! positive thesis:
! in war time nations and individuals fighting for nations should look out only for themselves
! if that is the case there is no room for moral wrong/right
! better called scepticism/nihilism
! 2 views about nihilism (based on egoism)
! everyone should pursue their own self interest
! global nihilism about morality
! alls fair in love and war cause alls fair everywhere
! there is no morality
! specific nihilism about war
! moral concepts apply to other concepts in life but war is a special concept in which moral
concepts does not apply
! Walter pg. 3
war is a world apart, here men and women do what they must do to ...... (special
! Lackey on subjective morality on pg. 2
! Walter on pg. 14 & 20
! moral judgements are universal & has no emotions attached to it
! stealing is wrong” is a moral judgement and it does not depend on anyone's attitudes
! Lackey: between states there is no common ground of morality (right/wrong) and there is no
enforcement mechanism
! but there is not a common ground within society as well
! there does not need to be agreement between parties when making condemnations (think of
NAZI example)
! individual may have many interests/duties, but nations have only 1 interest/duty which is to
further the welfare/interest of the nation
! although nations have a duty to further its own interests, it is constrained by the rights of other
people (ie. you cannot kill people in other countries even if it will save people in your own
! moral judgements does not apply to the side which did not initiate the war
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