PHL378H1 Lecture : Lecture 2- Realism and Pacifism- Just War Overview Sept 15 2009

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16 Aug 2010
PHL378: War & Morality
Lecture #2: Realism & Pacifism / Just War Overview
Sept, 15th, 2009
! US post 911 engaged in excessive moralizing (ie, characterizing IRAQ as axis of evil)
! this leads to underestimation of how difficult it is to achieve your goal and the effects of
your actions on international consequences
! Tony Cody
! there is something to realism
! do not cause destruction/death without need
! this view realist view is similar to just war theory
! war is never morally right
! global pacifism
! war is wrong b/c war involves violence, and violence never right to use violence b/c
violence harms
! “turn the other cheek”
! rules out self-defence
! one of the problems with global pacifism is that it allows lesser use of coercion
ie. psychological coercion used by Ghandi
starvation and international pressure
! special pacifism (antiwar pacifism)
! allows violence and killing in private life through self defence
! but forbids violence in war
! war is a realm apart b/c only there is violence forbid
! problem: why is war so different?
a nation defends itself against attack is simply a group of individuals using self-defence
if we have individuals has the right to self-defence, why then do we not have the right to
defend collectively?
! tactical pacifism
though war and violence is ruled out in principle
non-violent means will always be more effective
ie. let country invade without resistance then just use non-violent means to resist
ie. Ghandi's tactics
! pacifist has to be someone who is against all wars
! ie. you would not be a pacifist if you did not fight in the Iraq war but would have fought in
! pacifism does not tell us to minimize the number of killings, but it does tell us that we should
not kill
! hence it is an agent specific theory
Just Cause for War
! resisting aggression
! derives from rights of individual rights of citizen
Just War Theory
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