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University of Toronto St. George
Christopher Perumalla

Outline1Organization of the Body2What is physiology3Body plans and body compartments4Homeostasis5Biomolecules6Cell Structure7Protein synthesis1Organization of the bodyAtoms are the basic building blocks of matterPractically everything is made of atomsElements consist of only one kind of atom Atoms cannot be decomposed to simpler substances There are some atomic particles that contains neutrons and protons that lie in the nucleus of the atom with electrons spinning around on organized orbits in the nucleus All matter is composed of elements 92 of them The human body consists of mostly four elements carbon nitrogen oxygen and hydrogen Atoms join together to form moleculesAn example of molecules is H2OLarge molecules or macromolecules are applied to proteins carbohydrates fat and nucleic acids The next level of complexity is the cell or organelle An organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific functionThey are separately enclosed each performing a specific function within the cell The cell is the smallest is the smallest functional unit of all living organisms that carry out all the basic functions of life Nothing smaller than a cell is considered being alive Cells are grouped together to form tissues which are grouped together to form organsOrgans are generally composed of two tissue typesSeveral organs work together to from an organ system For example the digestive system consists of various organs such as the stomach pancreas liver etc An organ system is a group of organs with specific functions such as digestion respiration etc The human body has 11 organ systemsAn organism is a single complete individualTissue typesNerves muscles epithelium and the connective tissuesNerve tissues transmit information to the body for communicationThey have branches to receive and send information Some neurons process informationMuscle cells are specialized cells with the ability to contractThey are either voluntary Example of contraction is the flexing of your forearm Skeletal muscle cell and involuntary smooth muscle cells in the stomach used for digestion or cardiac muscle cells in the heart used to pump blood Epithelium tissue is a sheet like layer of cells on the surface of the body hollow body tubes blood vessels organs etc They function as a physical barrier or as a transport membrane Epithelium glands manufacture a product Major classes of glands include exocrine glands which have ducts and endocrine glands which do not have ducts They discharge their products hormones in the blood stream The fourth type of tissue is the connective tissue which is the most diverse and is characterized by an extracellular matrixThe connective tissue anchors and links structures of the body for example bones tendons fat and blood cells 2What is physiologyPhysiology is the study of how living organisms function including areas such as nutrition movement and reproduction 3Body plans and body compartmentsThe external and internal environment are separated naturally by an epithelium membraneThe epithelium barrier is continuous Examples of external environment include surroundings that are external to skin lungs and the air food and the stomach and urine in the bladderMost cells do not have direct exchange with the external environmentIn the diagram we can see the exchange between the internal and external environments as well as the interaction between the external environment and the bloodThere is also interaction between blood and tissue fluids and tissue fluids with tissue cellsAlso shown is the interaction of the blood with the external environment lungs and the external environment external environment and gastrointestinal system and finally external environment and kidneysThe figure also depicts mechanisms of exchange in the gastrointestinal tract which includes secretion and absorptionThere is also exchange of fluid across the kidneys including the processes of filtration reabsorption and secretion
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