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Lecture

Respiration

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Department
Physiology
Course
PSL201Y1
Professor
Christopher Perumalla
Semester
Summer

Description
H3C-C-S CoA acetyl CoA 2C oxaloacetate 6C Citrate STEP 1 4C STEP 2 6C NADH H NADH +H STEP 8 STEP 3 4C CO STEP 7 5C STEP 4 4C STEP 6 H STEP 5 NADH 4C CO NET RESULT: ONE TURN OF GTP THE CYCLE PRODUCES THREE FADH NADH, ONE GTP, AND ONE FADH2, AND RELEASES TWO MOLECULES OF CO2 Figure 13-11 Essential CellBiology, 24e. 2004 Garland Science) H3C-C-S CoA acetyl CoA 2C oxaloacetate 6C Citrate STEP 1 4C STEP 2 6C NADH H NADH +H STEP 8 STEP 3 4C CO STEP 7 5C STEP 4 4C STEP 6 H STEP 5 NADH 4C CO NET RESULT: ONE TURN OF GTP THE CYCLE PRODUCES THREE FADH NADH, ONE GTP, AND ONE FADH2, AND RELEASES TWO MOLECULES OF CO2 Figure 13-11 Essential CellBiology, 24e. 2004 Garland Science)Why do we breathe? The process of producing energy consists of taking fats and carbodydraytes, breaking these sugars and fats down so that we end up with hydrogen ions. Hydrogen ions facilitate the production of ADP. ADP is converted into ATP, the energy substance. At the end of the process, we still wind up with hydrogen ions. When we hold our breath, there is a rise in hydrogen ions which is problematic. Therefore, oxygen is necessary to come into the system through respiration, combine with the hydrogen ion and produce water. The process of producing energy is done though the Krebs cycle. Lung volumes 500 ml is approx the volume of air that we breathe in and out at a time during rest. This is called the Tidal volume. However, thecomposition of the air is changed. We use some of the oxygen and replace it with some of the CO2 coming off the Krebs cycle. In a minute, we breathe about 20 times. Therefore V = total volume  frequency = 500 (20)=10 000 ml or 10 L/min. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air possible to inhale with one breath. There is a large difference between the vital capacity and the total volume at rest. Resistance to air flow is proportional to 1/(radius)4. This signifies that a small decrease in the air waves leads to a large increase in resistance. In other words, taking bigger breaths will decrease the amount of air coming out because we cannot breathe in and out at the same time. However, we possess the ability to breathe out more than we can breathe in. This is called expiratory reserve volume. This reserve volume exists to expel unwanted items (ex: peanut stuck in throat) and to continuously supply oxygen to the pulmonary bloodstream. In addition to the expiratory reserve volume, there is the residual volume which is the oxygen left in the lungs that we are not capable of breathing out. The air that we breathe in after a period of rest is called the inspiratory reserve volume while the air that we breathe in after a period of rest then breathe out is called vital capacity. Timed vital capacity is the measure of the maximum amount of air during a forced vital capacity determination that can be expelled in a given number of seconds. For those with smaller airwaves, it would take a longer time for the air to be expelled from the lungs.Lung Volumes and Capacities Maximum possible inspiration 6.000 A 5,000 Inspiratory Inspiratory E 4,000 reserve volume capacity Vital capacity Tidal volume 2 3.000 Y Total lung capacity 2,000 C Expiratory reserve volume 1,000 Maximum voluntary expiration Functional residual Residual capacity volume UK Lung Volumes and Capacities Maximum possible inspiration 6.000 A 5,000 Inspiratory Inspiratory E 4,000 reserve volume capacity Vital capacity Tidal volume 2 3.000 Y Total lung capacity 2,000 C Expiratory reserve volume 1,000 Maximum voluntary expiration Functional residual Residual capacity volume UKHow do we bring air in and out of our lungs To bring air into the lungs, the ribcage rises up and the diaphragm lowers. This pulls the lungs outwards and downwards so that it becomes larger. The pressure inside the lungs drops compared to the
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