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PSL201Y1 (124)
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Lecture 1.docx

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Tara Lee

Lecture 1 atoms are the basic building blocks of matter elements consist of only one kind of atom atom cannot be decomposed into simpler substances all matter is composed of elements most occur naturally human body mostly consists of 4 elements Carbon nitrogen oxygen and Hydrogen atoms joined together to form molecules there are more molecules in your body than there are stars in the universe ex water sodium chloride large molecules called macromolecules applied to 4 conventional polymers proteins carbohydrates fats and nucleic acids next level of complexity includes a cell organelle there are many cell organelles an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell with a very specific function an organelle is separated and closed each organelle performing a specific function within the cell cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of all living organisms that carry out all the basic functions of life nothing simpler than a cell is considered to be alive cells group together to form tissues which are grouped together to form organs organs are generally composed of 2 tissue types several organs work together to form an organ system an organ system is a group of organs with a very unique collective function excirculation digestion human body has 11 organ systems an organism is a single complete individual types of tissues although there are about 200 different types of cells in human body divided into 4 main tissue types nerves muscles epithelium and connective tissue nerve cells transmit signals for communication branches to receive or transmit information receive information from receptors and transfer info to muscles or glands some neurons process info3 types of muscles are shown muscle cells can contract muscle cells can be voluntary or involuntary examples of contraction like flexing of forearm like skeletal muscle pumping of the blood as cardiac muscle or the mixing of the food or the case of smooth muscle in stomach epithelium sheet like layer of cells epithelium lines external body services hollow body tubes like blood vessels as well as organs and functions as a barrier and transport membrane epithelial glands formed from epithelium manufactured products like exocrine glands which have ducts and endocrine glands which dont have ducts and discharge products into blood stream and are called hormones connective tissue most diverse of the 4 tissues characterized by extracellular matrix connecting tissue anchors and links structures of the body ex bone tendons fat and blood cells physiology is the study of how living organisms function including processes like nutrition movement and reproduction human physiology is a science of widescope today it includes physiology that deals with processes inside the cells physiology also deals with how tissues and organs interact with each other or with other organs and how they are integrated within the individual also deal with how we respond to the environment body plan external and internal environment separated by epithelium epithelial barrier is continuous ex of external environment like surroundings external to lung to air food in stomach urine in bladder sources of nutrients and oxygen respository of waste most cells haven o direct exchange with external environment exchange of external and internal environment and interaction
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