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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Adrenal Glands.pdf

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Michelle French

The adrenal glands are located on the kidneys. Each of them is divided into two parts: Outside is Adrenal cortex sex hormones • Steroid hormone factory mineralcorticoids glucocorticoids Inside is Adrenal medulla • Catecholamine epinephrine Catecholamine release is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system Epinephrine/norepinephrine=neurotransmitters Epi.. is the main hormone bc it’s secreted in sufficient effect a r T n e l C mr B e h i d d e ii s a p g i l a l nhr .c h d cen a cm a o )n A c g r n (N pin ph s e m De e e a l e n e a e d r e M m h i EpihAphrines mediates the rapid stress response by acting on the u ew e e iece=tors oe different tissues: e e f Li glu le e t n : glr v s e h g e h u p ? : y yr d n s t ) e r s t i s c ,n , a n n f e s ▯ c o e ps ) s t e ▯2 a s c )r ) o e r a s e h o ( eiffereet receptors a(d effectors combine in different pathways to eroduce diverse physielogical effects i l p s t s e c g e.g. p Left: only alpha receptor is presentà e vessel only constricts r e **alpha adrenergic receptors have g HIGHER AFFINITY for norepinephrine s (when norepinephrine acts as a drug, o v it increases blood pressure by vessel o constriction) n Right: both alpha and beta receptors r are presentà less vessel o & constriction than found in intestinal a blood vessels d **beta receptors have HIGHER i n AFFINITY for epinephrine i ▯- ▯ a ▯ s   d 2 lr muscle  contracteon  can  produce  metabolite   ol which  then u  will  oause  vasodilation   6 y   e n td Adrenal cortex is oivided into different zones because of the oi n L different enzyses associased eith the zones prhduce specific steroids. Each zone tende to speciaeizecproducing 1 type of hormone s s n i e s n s n y i o d? es s a a t a e s u o d s s cn g x a o i c t s a o d g r r p e a e Since all the steroids hormones are derivatives of cholesterol, because of the action of different enzymes, different steroids hormones result. A s r = n s o a d e n e y e s a d a r o e y What  do  DHEA  and eandrostenedione  do?   They are weak androgens and have important physiological role in women and children: maintaining pubic hair, source of estrogens after menopause(they are precursors of estrogen, testosterone…) in women; contribute to andrenarche in children For men, they are less potent than testosterone produced by the testes. H w s n g e o a m y e e t h e ? y s onohesis  of  DHEA  and  androstenedione:   n oStimulated by ACTH and activates an enzyme at an early stage i DEnzyme activity changes throughout life time oc E p A o d o e i -) r i h e a n p w m Aldosterone   c c Synthesis: / 3 kinds of stimulators: a 1. ACTH l 2. High [K+] in plasma 0 3. Angiotensin II 0 2 Inhibitor: high osmolarity(ECF)   s m po e e s 1 o a 0 e o Q a W o p o r a e n o n aAldottvrone and ctrtisol amt by vinding to tee mineralocorticoid ne d trecectnrs o a a t i o p So in aldosterone responsiie cells, an enzyme(11β-hydroxysteroid s i n dehyrroglnase)pconverts cortidol  cortisone, which canno
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