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lecture 1 red blood cells.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Michelle French

Lecture1IntroandredbloodcellsBloodpg545557Blood makes upof the extracellular fluidoECF is the internal environment that bathes cells and acts as buffer between cells and the external environmentoBlood is the circulating portion of the ECF responsible for carrying material from one apart of the body to anotheroComposed of plasma and cellular elementsSide note Extracellular fluid ECF or extracellular fluid volume ECFV usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells The remainder is called intracellular fluidIn some animals including mammals the extracellular fluid can be divided into two major subcompartments interstitial fluid and blood plasma The extracellular fluid also includes the transcellular fluid making up only about 25 percent of the ECFIn humans the normal glucose concentration of extracellular fluid that is regulated by homeostasis is approximately 5 mMThe pH of extracellular fluid is tightly regulated by buffers around 74The volume of ECF is typically 15L of which 12L is interstitial fluid and 3L is plasmaMain cations2Sodium Na136145 mEqL Potassium K3555 mEqL Calcium Ca84105 mEqLMain anionsChloride Cl99109 mEqL Hydrogen Carbonate HCO 2226 mM3It is poorer in proteins as compared to intracellular fluidPlasma is extracellular matrixoWater92oProteins 7oDissolved organic molecules ions trace elements and vitamins and dissolved gases1
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