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JPA331Y1 Lecture Notes - Guerrilla Warfare, Zunyi, Leninism

Political Science
Course Code
Lynette Ong

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Sep 17 2013
Lecture 2
The Republican Era and Communist Rise to Power
19 th
Cen late Ching period
- By 19th cen. China was a weak country not living up to its own ideals
- British and opium
- Lin Zexu and burning opium
- Opium war and national humiliation
-British paid for Chinese goods with Opium. Addiction became serious problem due to
British and dampened health.
Lin Zexu burning opium in Canton
-Banned opium trade, seized all opium and flushed out to sea. This enraged British and
caused a war, the Opium War (Ching Dynasty suffered defeat 1939-1942).
-Hong Kong given to Britain as concession (unequal treaty between British and Ching
-Opium war and national humiliation
Overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and Warlordism
- Sun Yatsen founded Tongmenghui
- later Kuomintang (KMT)
- 1911 Xinhai Revolution helped overthrow the Qing Dynasty
- Abolished gentry’s class. Chaos. Warlordism. Sun’s “Three Principles of the
- Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun
- Soul-searching and attempted reforms:
- Tognzhi restoration (deemed largely a failure)
- Kang Youwei
After Meiji restoration, Japan was able to defeat China in 1894-1895 (sino-japanese
-Group of reformers headed by Kang, sought to restart Confucianism and proposed
some reforms such as: examination system (for those who wanted to be an official),
establishment of bureau for agriculture
-Opposition from Emperor began +imperial gov’t= reforms not successful.
-Confucianism is very much a cultural tradition
Sun Yatsen
-Studied in Hawaii and learned English,
-Tongm. Sought support from overseas Chinese to overthrow the Imperial gov’t.
-Revolution motivated by anger at corruption from Ching Dynasty.
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