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Lecture 1

JPA331Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Tongmenghui, Kuomintang

Political Science
Course Code
Lynette Ong

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After 1979
By the 19th century, China was a weak country and society. It used to see itself as the middle
kingdom, but it is not living up to its ideal by then. So when the western entered, they don’t see
China as a threat. Trade was confined to one small area. Not allow to communicate with the
imperial Government. British trade with China the opium and addiction was a serious problem
produce bad in the health of population. Lin ZeXu banned opium and burn them in Canton, and
this to the Western is an indication of war. 1849-1842. Concession to trade, right of residents, and
other trade privileges and hong kong was given to Britain as assession. Resulted in massive
humiliation to the Chinese people and National Anthem.
The TaiPing Rebellion 1850-64, lead by a guy Hong Xiao Chuen. The Qing Dynasty are lead by the
ManChus , when most Chinese are Han. Bloody Civil War, killed more than 20 million people and
took the Qing dynasty about 50 to finally crushed.
The intellectuals constantly debate the question of making China healthy and strong again. So
China is in the period of Soul searching, trying to find out problem of China leading to its decline.
attempted reforms
- Tongzhi restoration 1862-1874, it was a self strengthening movement, it was named after the
Tong Zhi emperor, it is within the system restoration. And it failed ( nothing new), it was largely a
failure when compared to Japan Meiji’s reform which was a great success.
- Kang Youwei , had sought to re-interprint Confucius ideas, and propose the redemption of
imperial system. Its difficult to be a civil servant in government and the Imperial exam play a
signification of society at that time and content are many Confucius classics. So he suggested
redemption of the exam , he came up with a lot of interesting ideas even though it is unsuccessful
(Qizi is the major back-scene power at that time)
-Sun Yatsen (Sun Zhongshan), Tongmenghui , 3menpolicy, people’s livelihood, xxx,xxx
motivated by anger of corruption from the Qing Dynasty and the frustration of the government to
strengthened its own power.
- abolish tradition examination, but undermine the hierarchy classes.
cause a lot of chaos ( China used to its own way, rule but the imperial class, sudden change
caused chaos) ( even now, if we remove communism in China, might created chaos or even
warlocks, because this system has been in effect for a long long time and removing it would require
Sheet of dry lose sand= its very difficult to unite Chinese people, a impact of Warlock effects
lingering in China at that time, ruled by various warlocks, create difficulty in trading, need to bypass
all these warlocks .
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