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Lecture

JPA331Y Mar 6th Notes


Department
Political Science
Course Code
JPA331Y1
Professor
Lynette Ong

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Senior Thesis Information Session
-mini-master thesis, it's about 30 pages or 40 pages. An opportunity to explore
topic really interested in, and can choose which professor to work with, and
work out with him/her on the area most interested in.
-March 21st, 2012 3pm - 4pm
-you get a full credit
-Sidney Smith Hall, Room 3130. There will also be another presentation on
Thursday, March 22, 2012, 4pm - 6pm.
-very similar to Individual Study
Domestic Source of China's Foreign Policy
-apart from next week, a guest on religion.
-after that, and this one, will focus on international dimension of China
-what are priorities, how does it see itself, etc.
-Why does China take certain actions, etc.
How China Views itself?
Three Lenses
National Revitialization: "rejevunation", benign power
Victim Mentality
Defensive securityoutlook
-beggining with Nationalization Revitalization
-there's belief that in China, reclaiming lost starter as a great power, rather
than rising for the first time, the media has always described China's current
rise as a revitalization, a rejuvenation of China's rightful place in the world as a
great power
-not an obscure country that arised only in 21st century
-it was for a long time world's greatest power
-media often refers to china's substantial influence, of Late Ming, Han, Tang, or
early Qing
-so there's a sense that China is merely correcting the historical abhorration

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since the Opium war
-in referring to earlier periods, Chinese policy makers maintain that China was
always hegemonic ruler, it wasn't like the European Imperial powers that go
about conquering, China has always been hegemonic, but a benign benevolent
great power without the exploitation of imperialism
-contributes to an entitlement mentality in regards to China's exertion in
international affair,
-if you take a long view of history, china has always been a great power, but
went into decline in the last 150 years
-at the time of being a great power, it has always been a benign and
benevolent power, never really a Hegemonic ruler that relied on force or
coercion, so gives rise to a sense of entitlement, that it's reclaiming its rightful
starter in the world
-but you should also contrast that with the victim mentality, that china is a
victim of 100+ years of shame and humiliation at the hands of western and
other foreign powers, especially japan
-beggining with Opium wars in 1840s, China was invaded, divided, and then
weakened by external powers,
-China was reunited by Mao's Communism, founding Republic of China
-fostered this narrative since 1949,
-this identity/narrative has become part of the Communist Party identity, that it
is a party that helped to reunify China, to help make up for years of humiliation
-it is also a mean to foster the party's legitimacy
-this sort of narrative is entrenched in the media, the propaganda, the
textbooks, the children grow up learning this sort of narrative and thinking
-this victimization narrative has created an accute chinese sensitivity to
infringement on china's soverignty and territorial integrity
-the "why does western world always want to victimize China"
-IR: principles of equality, mutual respect, and non-interference in the internal
affairs of state
-these views to reinforce rightful role
-first one and second one is slightly contradictory says Professor, while it wants
to revitalize its former glory, also sees itself as a victim

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-as a victim, one is likely to be defensive, thus a defensive security outlook,
this outlook stems from long standing historical determined Chinese fear that
foreign powers is trying to contain China, to coerce it into oppression and
explooit its internal weaknesses
-some of responses to Western attitude toward Tibet, Taiwan, etc and you get
this defensive outlook that western powers are interfering with China,
constraining China from reclaiming Taiwan,
-if you look at responses to Western China's response to currency, China
defend is that we aren't manipulating currency, but is Western fabrication to
constrain China place in world econopmy
-some of extreme view is taken by extreme rightists and not by average dude
-in during the cold war effort by U.S and Soviet Union to restrict China's goals
of developing nuclear weapons and unify Taiwan, these historical accounts
bolster CPC's narrative of a victimized China, a constrained China from
regaining glory
-part of party's strategy to legitimize own rule, but once you try to indoctrinate
into people's mind, it gains momentum on its own, people start to have strongr
reactions toward nationalism, and ordinary people will go to such an extent,
popular nationalism becomes a force indpendent on its own, seperated from
the party, but becoems something party can't control
-this effect foster deep insecurity about China's feleings about external powers
-China doesn't a threat to international, but is a threat from external forces like
Korea, Vietnam, India or other countries that build alliances with Western
powers
Long Term Foreign Policy Diplomatic Priority
-these historical priorities translate to long term diplomatic priorities
-these 3 long term diploatmic policies reflect some if not all the foreign policies
-i.e. climate change: related to economic development and partly to develop
international status
-protecting soverign and territorial integrity is core Chinese national interest,
and is evident in foreign policy to secure China's borders, promote unificiation
with Taiwan and limit threat to Chinese territotory including maritime Chiense
territorial claims and minimize external influence on Chinas development and
politics
-China's successful retaking of Hong Kong and Macau, seen as success of
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