POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - Authoritarianism, Modernism, Balance Sheet

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Published on 5 Dec 2012
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Oct 15 Lecture
Communism and Fascism
no holocaust-> no modern perception of human rights
Liberalism and its Crisis
Long 29th century is peak of liberalism’s appeal
Liberal institutions develop even where social basis Is not obviously present
Had parliaments that sounded like the West, yet they didn’t function that way
(Hungary, Poland)
Social basis that exists in the West does not exist in those places yet they
persist
Eventually liberal democracies that were ‘faking’ went into crisis
Hungary good example: through WWII, you had elections where they were
competitive (cities), country side it was very swayed (corrupt rules); an
example of how liberalism functioned in the third world; eastern part of
European continent was European ‘third world”; extreme rich versus
peasants (countryside); people started questioning liberalism and if it
actually works
Liberalism and the Working Class
extension of the franchise
working class, women, minority groups (this being the West)
Rise of Social Democracy in Western Europe. Evolutionary socialism and
reconciliation with liberal democracy: electoral socialism
Socialism makes way from revolutionary to evolutionary idea (in West)
That becomes the story of socialism in the West ^\
What about the revolution?
Lenin: revolutionary movement under conditions of authoritarianism- Russia
To be a communist-> almost a cult-> full time revolutionary activity-> you
did not play a role you held a status
Left on their own, workers will never make a revolution
Conspiracy
Workers only capable of “trade union consciousness” (they want more
money and less work)
Need “party” to bring them the truth: what this means for Marxism
Revolution will occur because the communist party will do it for them
Marxism and Economic Backwarness
Lenin trying to make revolution at the most economically backward time in
Europe
Illiteracy rates extremely high (81% in 1915, etc)
Russia- one of most backward countries in Europe
Working class revolution, with small working class
1917: World War and Revolution
Lenin never gave up on Revolution-> German government helped send Lenin
back to Russia to end war (against Germany)
1917 in Russia, Lenin comes, Russia going into complete chaos
Tzar steps down, parliament with a number of parties, only Lenin said lets
get out of the war
Lenin and highly organized group seized power
World Revolution or World Power
Russia was a weak link-> Revolution would spread everywhere
World revolution fails to materialize
From insurrectionism to statism- supporting communism means supporting
the Soviet Union
What it means to be the communist is to support the communist state->
Soviet Russia
But what is communism or socialism? What will this kind of economy look
like:
Lenin: “Communism= Soviet party + electrification” (everything modern)
But still does not solve the problem
They argue over entire 1920s, “let peasants get rich” -> increasingly capitalist
agriculture, how did this lead to rapid industrialization anyways? Peasant
want to be peasants not steel workers
Stalin: terror and progress
industrialization
collectivization
terror and secret police
purges and famine…
not even Russian, he speaks with a Georgian accent, Stalin not his real name
(means man of steel)
what he did get: force and power
he understood that if Russia was going to make it they had to go alone and
industrialize as rapidly as possibly to militarize efficiently
willing to use all force necessary
what he does: instructs party of police to go into the countryside, take grain,
send it to West, get machines to make their own (5 year plan)
collectivization of agricultural, industrialization-> secret police made
possible
all the people within the party might oppose him in all of this, arrests all of
the ‘old guard’, 70% executed or arrested
1922/23: Lenin says-> “Stalin is too rude”
Huge amounts of force used
Stalin shown as a ‘god” giving bread to poor, books on linguistics
Morphing of communist experiment into something different
Extreme famine, death (Ukraine, Western Russia) Famine killed somewhere
between 13-17 million people
Stalin and after
Construction of Militarized State
Socialism idea
Balance sheet. Won WWII and created an empire that lasted until 1991 but
long run growth prospects dismal
Economic Record of Eastern Europe under communism
economically behind in 1926-1934
1980: richer countries, economic decay
Military Expenditure
The Soviet union devoted between 15 and 17 percent of its annual gross
national product to military spending during the 1980s
From 1970-79, however, soending on the military was higher, ususally
fluctuations between 21.5 and 18.6
Germany
Late state unification 1871
Politically and economically backward
Catching up with Britain: economic modernization without political
modernization (democratization)
Lesson One*: when you are economically backward there are two things you
can: you can adjust economic order, or you can change the order
Adjusting order: politics of development, ‘economic development’ in poor
countries
Russian and Germans capable of stealing and conquering through a change in
order
Always the question: adapt to existing world order to try to change it
British created free trade after conquering the world-> only ones to benefit