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POL101Y1 Lecture Notes - Hundred Flowers Campaign, Communist Party Of China, Qing Dynasty

Political Science
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Nov. 1, 2010
Democracy with Chinese Characteristics
Allure of Fukuyama is compelling, however; the example of China goes
against his idea that history has ended along with the fall of Communism
Why doesnt China have democracy?
China in the Modern Era
1)End of the Qing dynasty
2)Republican revolution
3)Sun Yat-Sen: Three principles of people
Opium wars with the British; go to war with the Japanese (end up
losing the war)
Ok to lose war to British, but not the Japanese
These lost wars set the stage for the end of the dynastic regime
After the Ming dynasty more people living on less, China closed off
from the rest of the world becoming essentially economically
backwards, disengaged from the world economy
Brilliant at inventing things, however; were unable to sell on the
international market
Was a Manchurian dynasty (not Han); Manchurians viewed as
barbarians that ruled China for over 2 centuries
Was a republican revolution to throw the Manchurians out and
overthrow the Qing dynasty
Out of this chaos is a moment in which people try to rebuild a unified
The birth of China in the 20th century was one of tremendous
philosophical reflection
Sun Yat-Sen came up with three principles: nation, democracy, &
Wanted a China that would serve the livelihoods of the Chinese
Non-Democratic Modern China

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Largest economic miracle of all time fasting growing economy in
terms of economic growth of all time
Emerged as a basket-case economy in the 1970s (but will most likely
become the largest economy in the world)
Extraordinary modernization and economic growth; yet no
China is not a democracy as it is understood in political theory, or if
one takes into consideration Robert Dahls Polyarchy
No institutionalized uncertainty
Terribly poor human rights, no meaningful elections
No separation of powers, freedoms are extremely curtailed (enormous
capacity for censorship)
No alternative to the Chinese communist party
Very difficult to describe the Chinese political system, however it is not
According to our theories, China should be democratic and it should be
leaning towards democracy
A Democratic Revolution?
1)High tide of Maoist socialism (1949-56)
2)100 flowers movement (1956)
3)Anti-rightist campaign (1957)
4)Great leap forward (1928-62)
5)Cultural revolution (1966-76)
Yet, no democratic revolution.
1) High Tide of Maoist Socialism
China began to economically develop in the 1950s, wanted a self-reliant
China that would grow on its own, closed off to the world
China Communist Party announces 12-year plan targeting agricultural
production to increase by 150%
Massive economic transformation in China with the participation of
people; production increases in the 1950s people were buying in,
wanted a China that would be able to stand up to the rest of the world
This occurred because people were forced into cooperatives in order to
increase agricultural production
This was the high tide of socialism, scientific Maoism China was on
the rise, Maos plan for China was working
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